Customizing the packaging: THE FUTURE OF PACKAGING
Adapting the pack to the product, which we are marketing, is a trend that is becoming stronger because of its effectiveness: it generates added value and identifies the brand. Getting to that customized pack requires a long process and consumes resources, but despising it is an error, given that it can contribute rather much. l Cecilia Pont* * Designer and director at Cecilia Pont. When making the first sales, each one of us carrying out an endeavor is facing the same question: how to develop the packaging in an attractive, but not very expensive way?When you start a business, the concern is usually exclusively focused on the product you are trying to market. The packaging is then relegated to a second plane. This type of thinking is associated with the initial instance of a project: when there is a concrete need to choose where to focus since the resources are scarce. As the business grows—and I found that this happens in many cases—the way to present the product becomes increasingly important, while the time and resources devoted to developing it become more important as well. As a designer, I understand that there are basic principles, which must be taken into account so as the design of the packaging will be effective: above all, it needs to be functional, but at the same time it must be simple enough so that the product is not eaten. Thinking of a package, which accompanies the product instead of choosing a generic one, is the best way to take advantage of the presentation to enhance our business. Customized development The first step to thinking about a package, which is organic to the product and which we try to market, is to conduct a market research. It is necessary to explore all available options, make comparisons and to do a detailed study on the advantages of each of the proposals with which we meet. Finally and after an exhaustive search and analysis process, it is time to create your own proposal. Most of the time and at the beginning, what happens is that we do not have the necessary resources available to invest everything we would want in the packaging. The main focus is on the quality of the product, and there is a conscious choice to allocate most of the resources there Most SMEs grow organically and, unless you have a large initial investment, it is a long process until we have the resources we intend to develop the packaging, which is most consistent with the product. During this process, it is necessary to remember that the pack is a great ally for commercialization. Aesthetics of the hand with functionality One of the first decisions to be taken upon deciding to move forward with the creation of a customized packaging is related to materials. There is always a difference between those being cheaper and those having an added value, such as being eco-friendly or handmade. This decision must be taken while bearing in mind that the packaging represents the product and the ideals of the company to align with what the company proposes. Moreover, the material has the ability to be durable or disposable. Durable packaging has a double function: not only do they add an extra value to the product, which the customer appreciates, but they are also a constant reminder of the brand. For my pieces of jewelry, I choose a durable packaging that my consumers keep to store their pieces. Aesthetic values are an important choice as well. A good idea is to stay in the classic lines and colors if we are marketing a colorful product. In this way, we generate a contrast and avoid the competition in the product packaging. You can opt for a colorful packaging to generate an impact when we are working with a product of more neutral tonalities or when we seek to generate a strong identification of the brand. Another dimension of aesthetics has to do with sizes: generating specialized packaging for each product adds a value that is not negligible. It generates a sense of personalization that dresses the product and makes it look more important. When the packaging besides being cute is designed to serve the product, you feel when you open it that you have bought a piece with the value of the work printed on it. In addition to thinking about the packaging depending on the market and the product in the catalog, we must take into account which consumers we are targeting. If you are a wholesaler, it is important to think about the way how you want to present the product. It is convenient to discuss all these issues with a designer, be present in the design process, and allow him to propose ideas. The choice of that professional designer is very important, since he will have a lot of influence on the realization of the pack. Your point of view is paramount to achieve a result, which is effective in quality, design and price. A packaging for each product The packaging is the basics for all products, but we must recognize that its importance also depends on the type of product, which we are marketing. When we work with a design product, we expect the packaging to be up to it. As in any case, if it is a female accessory, we are facing a pack that acquires even greater importance. This must be taken into account because many times while embarking on a venture we fail to consider it. There are masculine, feminine, youthful packs, and this can be imagines for each packaging. The packaging design is a separate world in which it is necessary to submerge so as to find the most appropriate one. The way of presenting the product can be defining when placed in prestigious outlets. Of course, it is always the quality of the product that makes them competitive and attractive, but detracting from the importance of packaging is an error, since it is the framework, which surrounds what we intend to market. In addition to punishing the packaging depending on the market and the product in the catalog, we must take into account which customers we are going to target: whether it is a retailer, wholesaler, in case if we are working with other brands. If you are a wholesaler, it is important to think about the way how you want to present the product to your customers. Valuation by customers Experience has shown me that thinking of an ad hoc packaging is highly valued. This can be seen in the feedback given by customers, which is a very important element for evaluating the actions taken in an enterprise. It is crucial to listen to the voice of those who consume our products so as to identify if we are falling into any of the most common mistakes when designing a packaging. We can finish with an uncomfortable pack or if the materials are not of good quality and do not support the product well. It may also be that it does not completely identify the brand or that it becomes unusable once the product is removed. One way to evaluate if we fall into any of those examples is to listen to our customers, establish a dialogue to find out what happens with that package once it leaves our store.
The challenge of a SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN
The concept of a sustainable development covers a huge range of topics and approaches, and has touched different areas of human activity in recent decades, including business. Thus, the convergence of business and the environment has not been more relevant as it is currently. l Roberto Piña* * Manager of the Mexico City plant of Ecolab. In the field of sustainability, resource efficiency is a practical way for producers and suppliers in the food industry to work together with the purpose of delivering tangible and valuable results to the company and its customers. Hence, the term Sustainable Supply Chain is used here to describe from the selection and supply of raw materials, which are the basic components of almost all products, to the production and manufacturing, retail and service, where products meet with people through logistic activities inside and outside the company. Examples of the efficient use of vital resources, especially energy and water, and the management of final waste are frequently used to cite that good logistic practices within the chain is positively contributing to the energy efficiency and to the reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, However, there are the environmental benefit beyond it, and this is where there are advantages and great business opportunities for companies that know how to take advantage of different technologies and solutions in order to improve the efficiency when using their resources. In the 1980ies, it was common to look for ISO 9000 certifications. Subsequently, it became a standard and a "must" to close deals or attract customers so as to demonstrate that the company has and applies a sustainable philosophy in its operations. Today, there are at least three levels in which a company from any sector can work in order to make its supply chain more sustainable: a) External: with the community and government institutions to meet the state and municipal requirements, which allow for obtaining certifications, such as clean industry. b) Internal: with distinctive processes for the use and management of its resources and with corporate goals, which are higher and permeated throughout the organization (for example, there are companies* seeking to reduce annual energy consumption by 7%). c) External with its clients: by inviting them to implement the processes and technology or by stimulating the strategic alliances so as to take advantage of the services that they can offer among themselves. The three levels have interesting edges. However, there is no doubt that beyond the focus of corporate social responsibility by way of linking the performance results with sustainability metrics and cost savings, the profitability of implementing sustainability solutions in the chain. In any case, it results in an investment in the future and in competitive advantages for the business. Some solutions and technologies applied to logistics and sustainability within the plants of certain companies* and those of their customers are related to the efficient energy consumption, the handling of trash, and the use of water. For example, they have made a technological conversion of LP gas to natural gas in the field of energy, which implies less carbon dioxide emission. Moreover, the use of solar cells for the generation of hot water and Plep technology saves up to 90% of electricity. In waste management, PET, cardboard, and paper waste are recycled for the production of books thanks to an agreement that cooperates with the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP). The internal use of water has been linked to technologies of dry urinals and the water management of Clean-in-Place (CIP), which reduce 70% water consumption in productive areas. Towards the outside, technologies* which help monitoring and optimizing the use of the liquid in the heating and cooling towers, serve as a key tool to help plants to reduce their use. Lowering the production chain is vital for all industries. With this type of technology, there is an area of opportunity for companies both internally and externally. Tax incentives are often the main motivators to incorporate the aspects related to sustainability in the management of chains. In Mexico, for example, there is also another area of opportunity in the possibility of partnerships with companies for the self-generation of electric power. However, there are also challenges, such as working together at all levels and cultivating the corporate culture of sustainability. Countries, such as the United States and several more in Europe, implemented diverse strategies in the 1990ies in order to motivate sustainability in the industry. They worked with companies and citizens to consolidate that culture. In the case of Mexico, recycling is not seen as a business nowadays. It is necessary to stop seeing sustainability as an expense, and instead to look for the opportunity. In our experience, it is an investment and a long-term commitment in the long run (it takes about three years to transform an organizational culture and implement a technology). As a country, it is a difficult path, but profitable at the end, and it can take advantage of the great inventiveness and creativity that characterizes Mexican entrepreneurs. Finally, the extension of sustainability practices throughout all phases of production poses the challenge of their coordination. Therefore, it is advisable to have a specific area in the company and with the appropriate profiles in order to monitor the necessary corporate initiatives so as to reach the goal. It is necessary to raise the awareness about the actions, which must be implemented to improve the quality, efficiency and sustainability throughout the chain. * Please refer to Ecolab México and to its technologies, such as 3D TRASAR.
MICROFOAMING TECHNOLOGY: changing world, changing packaging
Microfoaming is a technology developed in order to meet the demands of the packaging market by way of a more sustainable solution, which reduces the greenhouse gas emissions. l Cladia Hernández* * Scientific Researcher TS&D Latin America at Dow. Micro-foaming1 is a technology, which decreases the weight of coextruded polyethylene films by way of controlled physical foaming. In addition, it allows a reduction in the material without compromising the performance requirements of the packaging. The best thing about this technology is that more packages can be produced with the same amount of raw material. A solution for the Challenges the Packaging Industry is facing The rapid growth of the world population is creating an even greater demand for food, which implies new challenges for the packaging industry. In order to minimize the impact of the carbon footprint, flexible packaging solutions meeting the sustainability goals in the value chain are required, and without affecting its performance. The trigger for the development of this technology was a deep scientific knowledge, both to modify the molecular architecture, and the processes of foaming and extrusion of the design, which is tailored to the final properties of the films. This innovation comprises the injection of atmospheric gases into a co-extruded polyethylene structure so as to physically foam the films, and to reduce their density, which then allows to produce between 15% and 25% more packages with the same amount of raw material. This process preserves or increases the thickness of the film so as to obtain an equal or better stiffness and functionality. Thanks to the presence of uniform cellular structure, foaming provides a pearlescent optical effect. Micro-foaming technology addresses the sustainability issues of those who participate in this innovation, since it offers the converter the possibility of improving the profile so as to reduce the impact of the carbon footprint, and which helps the brand owners to meet their corporate objectives in this respect, while their market share is increased by offering new and lightweight packaging. Saving the amount of material used in the production of these packages enables the plastic converters to considerably reduce the greenhouse gases (GHG). Accessible Implementation The implementation of the technology with converters requires a minor modification to the existing co-extrusion equipment. The project has been implemented in converting plants located in multiple countries in Latin America3. The technology of micro-foam films was developed in order to meet the needs of the packaging market, along with the solutions to reduce the weight of the films and to improve the sustainability indicators. This process generated important innovations, which are facing the challenges the market is presenting nowadays, namely the conservation of the properties of the packaging, its form and performance during the filling process, among them. The result is to increase the number of high quality packages, which are produced with the same amount of resin. Technical propertiesof Microfoaming This technology allows for a reduction in weight, while the thickness and packaging performance requirements are kept up. Among the most outstanding features of the micro-foam films are toe following ones: a) a reduction in weight of up to 30% without reducing the size, which increases the number of packages produced of the same amount of resin; b) thicker films and higher stiffness with less resin consumption; c) films with differentiated organoleptic properties, such as both being soft to the touch and a pearly appearance. Competitive advantages In addition to the increased production of more containers with the same amount of raw material, the contribution to the reduction in weight has a lower impact on the environment and, therefore, it reduces the carbon footprint, while this technology is versatile. It can be used in the development of flexible packaging for various fields, such as food, cosmetics and packaging, and in turn, it translates into competitive advantages, such as an environmental profile, which is better than the traditional packaging, a better maintenance of thickness, while the strength of the sealing and the structural and tear strength are improved, and a transparent packaging with differentiated optical properties and perception and/or lamination, a softer external surfaces allowing for a better printing quality, an isolation of packaged products, a reduction of direct and indirect costs due to savings in energy and final packaging. 1 Developed and patented techology by Dow. 2 Please refer to DOWLEX, GM, ELITE AT, AFFINITY and INNATE 3 MuCell Extrusion LLC is the company supplying the equipment necessary for the adaptation of the machinery and to achieve micro-foaming.
The beverage sector needs to "kill two birds with one stone." On the one hand, consumers expect personalized, functional and ecological packaging, while on the other they take into account the care of the planet. The sector gets better and better with new packaging concepts and an efficient production technique. l Sebastian Pflügge* * Department at Interpack, Packaging and Processing Press / PflueggeS@messe-duesseldorf.de Nowadays, the packaging sector needs to satisfy the consumer demand. On the one hand, buyers expect customized design packaging, preferably with additional features, while on the other hand beverage consumers are thinking more and more about ecology, and want to protect resources, and that the packaging is ecologically made. The detail of giving the hosts just a bottle of champagne or wine as a small gift is outdated. The new trend in gift packaging is to give something complete and awaken emotions with new materials and improvements. Companies in this segment develop cardboard boxes and boxes, baskets, wooden boxes, decorative items and bags to give gifts a special effect. That is, wine and champagne bottles can be presented in exclusive gift cassettes with touch and authentic wood appearance. Or there are attractive additional features integrated in the packaging. For example, a small lamp shade with which the empty bottle can easily be transformed into a decorative table lamp, since exclusivity and variety are the success in gift packaging. What can be applied in this segment of packaging can also move to the market of beverages in general: wine, champagne or beer alone in normal bottles cannot excite consumers. Therefore, the variety of alcoholic, combined and flavored beverages, which are also sold in bottles with original designs, is so great that the consumer can afford to be difficult to satisfy. If you want to convince consumers, it is necessary to highlight the products of the rest at first sight. "The aesthetic and with it, the emotion are placed more and more in the foreground, and are playing more decisive role in the consumption of the products. In a complex world, it is important to let the stomach and not the head decide, since this saves time," says Andreas Steinle of the Zukunftsinstitut, a factory of ideas for the investigation of tendencies and the future. The maintendency is individuality and differentiation For example, the evian mineral water brand, distributed by Danone Waters, makes an immense effort to highlight the product’s exclusivity. In its plastic bottles with an exclusive design, it uses the new technology "Nature MultiPack," an innovation in the field of packaging that links individual PET bottles through the use of specific adhesives, so that they are individually aligned and then can be separated without problems. Moreover and concerning the design, Danone continues unusual ways: for the ninth time since 2008, evian launches a limited edition, in which water bottles are designed by well-known fashion designers. In 2016, it was the turn of the American fashion designer Alexander Wang, who took the barcode as the theme for packaging and transferred it to the glass bottles by means of white and black bars. The spaces between the bars and the purist design should visualize the natural purity of evian. But not only the exclusive brands are using individuality and differentiation. Beverage manufacturers increasingly use returnable 0.5-liter bottles for their mineral waters and soft drinks to reach even the smallest households, or they offer their product in artistically designed bottles to enter the high segment of the restoration. The packaging of original designs have advantages, but also disadvantages. The more individual and versatile the products’ packaging is, the more laborious and expensive their production is. Higher manufacturing costs are passed on to customers in the form of higher prices, a situation frequently criticized by consumer associations. In addition, laborious manufacturing procedures and non-returnable bottles contaminate the environment. To reduce pollution, some countries have set ambitious targets for the return of packaging. For example, Germany wants to reach 80%, however, the quota has dropped from two thirds to 45% instead since 2004. At the same time, the amount of waste from non-returnable beverages packaging has since increased by about 30%. The causes of the boom of non-returnable packaging are the merchants and manufacturers. In the mineral water sector, there are price wars in beverages and supermarket establishments, but the special offers only work with non-returnable bottles, since the collection, cleaning and refilling of the plastic bottles are laborious. Therefore and among other things, politicians propose to agree on the payment of a deposit on the non-returnable bottles in the form of an ecological tax, and to extend the obligation of the deposit to juices and nectars. Demand for a technique of resource-saving packaging Moreover, packaging manufacturers are subject to this obligation. On the one hand, they must achieve an effective presentation of the packaging and be comfortable for users, while on the other they have to save raw materials and cause less pollution of the environment. In this way, the requirements for packaging machines also increase. A responsible treatment of natural resources and an ecological conscience are very important for the manufacturers of feeding machines and packaging machines. They know that sustainable production processes are very important for their customers, says Vera Fritsche, person in charge at VDMA, the Technical Association of Packaging and Packaging Machines. The technique of intelligent control and automation, the drives, compressors, fans or thrifty pumps were among the classic solutions to save current and production means, and increase the energy efficiency. The efficient motors, which are optimally adapted to the movements and acceleration processes in the machines, reduce the current consumption. In addition, innovative and optimized processes decrease the energy and water consumption, the concepts of innovative machine extended the service and maintenance intervals, as well as service dimming, and thus energy was saved, said to Fritsche. Upcycling—a second life for packaging Environmental protection has become a decisive factor in the beverage sector, and can even be used for profit, as exemplified by the smoothie maker True Fruits. Unlike many other producers, it does not pack its beverages in plastic bottles, but in 250-ml and 750-ml cylindrical glass bottles printed in ceramic, so as to transmit the design of the required values, such as honesty, purity, high value and transparency. In order that the bottles do not simply stop at the glass container when they are empty, the True Fruits team has thought about how to reuse them. They found the solution in the so-called Upcycling, where the object after use is used as a basis for a new product. True Fruits created supplements that can be easily placed on empty bottles: until now, the company offers permanent caps to convert the containers into a sugar bowl, salt shaker, an oil, cruet or sauce boat, or a filter for tea. A combination of vitamins, originality and sustainability clearly pleases customers, as True Fruits is one of the leaders on the smoothie market. Another focus of organic beverage packaging is bioplastic. Last year, Coca-Cola introduced the new generation of "PlantBottleTM", made 100% of reusable raw materials, and announced an immediate introduction to the market. The bio-based materials of the so-called "First Generation" must be manufactured in the long run from biomass, for example, from wood waste. In a research project, scientists at the University of Hohenheim are testing another promising natural raw material for bottles—the tuberous roots of endives, which until now were used to generate biogas. The non-consumable tuberous root accounts for 30% of the plant. The researchers obtain hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) without depurifying, which can be used to make the so-called PEF bottles.
ProPak Asia 2020 - The Premier Processing & Packaging Exhibition for Asia
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Effects of packaging design on sensory liking and willingness to purchase: A study using novel chocolate packaging
BY Nadeesha M. Gunaratne, Sigfredo Fuentes *, Thejani M. Gunaratne, Damir Dennis Torrico, Caroline Francis, Hollis Ashman, Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Frank R. DunsheaSchool of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia * Corresponding author.E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (S. Fuentes). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01696 Received 6 February 2019; Received in revised form 16 April 2019; Accepted 7 May 20192405-8440/© 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). ABSTRACT Packaging is the first impression consumers have of food products which determines likelihood of purchasing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chocolate packaging design on sensory liking and willingness to purchase (WTP) of consumers (n ¼ 75) under three conditions:(1) blind [product], (2) packaging, and (3) informed [product and packaging]. The same chocolate tasted in (1) was wrapped in six different packaging concepts (bold, fun, every day, special, healthy, premium) developed based on TNS Need- Scope™model for (3). There were significant differences in liking towards taste based on packaging. Liking scores for (3) reduced when expectations created by packaging were not met. Regression analysis explained, taste had strongest association (r ¼ 0.73) towards WTP. Cochran's Q and McNemar tests showed significant differences in frequencies of emotion-based terms between packaging and informed conditions. These findings can be used in product design to evaluate product attributes by enhancing emotional attachment towards chocolate. 1. Introduction Product packaging is an important form of marketing communication. When shopping for everyday foods or beverages, consumers base their purchase decision on extrinsic product characteristics and appearance (Fenko et al., 2010). There is a difference in how consumers perceive intrinsic product cues like flavor, aroma, texture and to how they perceive extrinsic product cues like packaging material, information and brand name (e.g. packaging material, information, brand name, price) (Ng et al., 2013). Intrinsic product cues are associated with sensory and perceptual systems, while extrinsic product cues are processed through cognitive and psychological mechanisms (Cardello, 2007). Aspects of choice occurring outside the conscious awareness have a marked influence on consumers purchasing decisions (Fitzsimons et al., 2002). New products that have been introduced into the market with positive feedback from focus groups still fail after a few months of their launch (Zaltman et al., 2003). Consumer acceptability measurement alone is not sufficient to predict actual consumers food choice as it does not provide deep insights about consumers feelings and motivations(Danner et al., 2017). Emotions are considered better predictors of food choice than using liking scores alone (Dalenberg et al., 2014; Gutjar et al., 2015). Previous research has established that extrinsic product cues such as packaging and branding influence how consumers evaluate food products (Deliza and MacFie, 1996). Furthermore, extrinsic visual cues such as packaging, nutritional information, price and labelling generate consumers expectations (Guinard et al., 2001). Expectations constitute the “pre-trial-beliefs about the product” based on the knowledge and memories of the same cue (Okamoto and Dan, 2013). Consumers disconfirmation may occur by failing to meet the product expectations (Deliza and MacFie, 1996). If the consumers expectations are met/confirmed by the sensory perception, consumers would likely repeat the purchase of the product (Deliza and MacFie, 1996). This makes packaging a very important factor for food manufacturers since the function of packaging design is not only to attract consumers attention but also to convey expectations of how that food product will be sensory perceived (Ng et al., 2013). Information provided in or on packaging can influence consumers expectations, thus affect emotional responses (Ng et al., 2013; Spinelli et al., 2014). Emotions have gained interest in the field of sensory and consumer sciences since the emotional attachment towards products is important for repeated purchases (Paul et al., 2009). The objectives of the study were (i) to identify how packaging affected liking of taste, (ii) to identify how liking affected the emotions evoked by the chocolate product under different packaging, and (iii) to assess if packaging or taste affected the willingness to purchase (WTP). It was hypothesized that different packaging concepts/designs affect sensory liking across the packaging (only packaging) and informed (packaging and product) conditions, and the packaging designs affect the taste perception of consumers. 2. Material and methods The study was conducted in three parts as: (1) blind condition: to study the effects of sensory characteristics of dark chocolate on the sensory perception of consumers without packaging, (2) packaging condition: to study the effect of packaging characteristics on the visual perception of consumers without tasting the chocolate, and (3) informed condition: to study the combined effect of sensory and packaging characteristics on the sensory perception of consumers. 2.1. Participants for the sensory sessions For this study, consumers (N = 75; Age: 25–55 years old; Gender: 41% males, 59% females) were recruited via e-mail invitations to staff and students from The University of Melbourne, Australia who volunteered to participate in the sensory assessment. Chocolate consumers were used for the study. However, there were no conditions required for the consumers to be recruited for the experiment such as consumption frequency and liking towards milk/dark chocolate, among others Experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne, Australia (Ethics ID 1545786.2). After completing the study, consumers received incentives in the form of a coffee voucher as appreciation for their participation in the sensory session. 2.2. Stimuli Dark chocolate (70% cocoa; Coles Supermarkets Australia Pty Ltd, Hawthorn East, VIC, Australia) was provided to consumers for tasting in both blind and informed conditions. Dark chocolate was used since five out of six packaging concepts were dark chocolates based on the packaging element selection (Fig. 1). Based on the TNS NeedScope model™ (NeedScope International, Auckland, New Zealand), six distinct market categories (bold, fun, every day, special, healthy and premium) were identified to provide scope for the six conceptual packaging developments. Six unique style-guides were established using current and leading design trends that provided identity markers for the conceptual representation of the authentic profiles. Elements identified under each category were broadly collected under the criteria of the profiles to be sorted through the iterative design process of explore, ideate, define, prototype, and test (Anderson et al., 2011). Fig. 1. Front and back packaging concepts designed based on the six segments of TNS NeedScope™ used for the study, where A) represents bold concept, B) Fun concept, C) Everyday concept D) Special concept, E) Healthy concept and F) Premium concept. The elements were collated under (1) packaging type, (2) branding, (3) information content, and (4) flavor. Packaging type explored substrates, shapes, windows and material types. The resulting branding elements assessed patterns, textures, color counts, reflective intensities, transparencies, font styles, and product imagery. Information content consisted of logo, name and slogan, product callouts, ingredients, country of origin, nutrition information, manufacturing address, expiry date, and barcode/serial number, based on common Australian packaging designs. Chocolate flavors and fillings available from the market were investigated and grouped into higher levels of milk chocolate (every day), dark chocolate (special, healthy), flavor enhancements (bold), fill inclusions (fun), and multi-layered (premium). The elements tested under the flavor groups were allied with both the six categories and the market groups identified on supermarket shelf in Australia. As shown in Fig. 1, front and back packaging were developed using SolidWorks software (SolidWorks Corporation, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA) for each concept. The new brand name was created by identifying a word that could be associated to either a sound similar to the chocolate, a rhyming word, a pleasurable emotion, a desirable word or a modified word that evokes cultural status. ‘Chuff’ was selected as the new brand name for the chocolate product, because the word ‘chuffed’ is an informal word meaning ‘very pleased’ in Australia. Removing the ‘ed’ of the word makes it a little unknown, yet still recognizable. The new chocolate logo was designed to be simple and universal to reach the Australian market. All packaging designs were new and were not available in the marketplace to ensure that the consumers did not have previous experiences with the concepts. The labels were designed by a graphic designer with previous experience in the design of food labels for the industry. 2.3. Data gathering The sessions were conducted in individual sensory testing booths. They consisted of an integrated camera system controlled by a bio-sensory application (App) designed for Android tablets PC (Google; Open Handset Alliance, Mountain View, CA, USA) developed by the sensory group from the School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, the University of Melbourne (Fuentes et al., 2018). The tablets were used to present the packaging concepts and the questions for the consumers. It was conducted in the sensory laboratory located at The University of Melbourne, Australia (Parkville campus) with controlled temperature (24–26 °C) (Viejo et al., 2018). Participants were asked to sit in individual sensory booths with uniform white lighting conditions. Consumers participated in three different tests under the same session. The tests were the (1) blind, (2) packaging, and (3) informed conditions. The three conditions were tested in the same order for each consumer since they were expected to taste the chocolate first without any extrinsic information, and then observe the packaging designs to evaluate just the packaging, and finally taste the chocolate provided with the packaging to evaluate the combined effect of the chocolate and packaging. The total duration of the session was 20–30 minutes. 2.4. Blind condition Initially, consumers were given instructions that they would receive a piece of chocolate (1 cm × 1 cm) to taste. The sample was provided in an unlabeled transparent cup (unbranded product) under white lights. Only one sample was provided to the consumers for the blind condition. Participants were asked to rate the taste liking of the chocolate using a 15-point non-structured continuous scale, and was converted to 100-point for ease of comparison between samples and conditions (1 = dislike extremely, 50 = neither like nor dislike 100 = like extremely) (Holland et al., 2017). Consumers were asked to cleanse their palate with water and unsalted crackers after tasting the sample. 2.5. Packaging condition After completing the blind test, the next test (packaging condition) started after 5 minutes in the same booth. The six designed packaging concepts were presented to consumers one at a time in fixed order (the order of the samples was based on the increasing complexity: from the simple designs to luxurious/premium designs), on tablet PCs for 10 seconds each. Each concept was presented followed by a lexicon of 24 emotion-based terms (four terms representing each segment in the NeedScope™ model; Table 1) giving the option to the consumers to check all emotion-based terms that apply (CATA) during the evaluation of the packaging concepts. The overall liking towards the packaging concepts was also measured using a 15-point non-structured continuous scale, and was converted to 100-point for ease of comparison between samples and conditions (1 = dislike extremely, 50 = neither like nor dislike to 100 = like extremely). Table 1. Emotion-based terms provided to the consumers during the evaluation of the packaging designs sing the Check-all-that-apply (CATA) methodology. Bold Fun Every day Special Healthy Premium Excitement Bright Family Relaxing Balance Achievement Shocked Fun Happy Calm Wisdom Luxury Adventure Colorful Togetherness Peace Health Sophisticated Energy Silly Friendship Caring Discipline Success 2.6. Informed condition All consumers (N = 75) who participated in the blind and packaging condition participated in the informed condition. After the packaging condition, within a 5-minute interval, consumers were directed to another sensory booth in the same laboratory for the informed condition. Effect of packaging on taste was tested by presenting the same chocolate in six different packaging designs (Fig. 2) using the six segments of TNS NeedScope™ model. The consumers were handed over the product one at a time, not making them aware that they were receiving the same sample. This was ensured at the end of the experiment by interviewing the panelists about their experiences during the sensory session. All participants reported that they were not aware that the chocolate products were the same. The samples provided in packaging condition and informed condition were not randomized, as it would be more complex in trying to let the consumer experience the package only (packaging condition) with the package and taste (informed condition) and letting them compare these conditions. Fig. 2. Correlation matrix showing the relationship between liking towards the taste vs. liking towards the packaging for each concept. Only significant correlations are presented (p < 0.05). The color bar represents the correlation coefficients in a scale from -1 to 1, where the blue side denotes the positive correlations, while yellow represents the negative correlations Abbreviations: P = Packaging, T = Taste. During the informed condition test, participants were provided with a piece of chocolate together with the wrapped product (using the six concept designs; Fig. 1). Consumers were informed that the piece of chocolate belonged to that specific packaging. They were asked to taste the chocolate and check all the emotion-based terms (CATA), which comes into their mind during tasting of the product. The emotion-based terms were the same as those provided in the packaging condition (Table 1). Crackers and water were used to cleanse the palate between each sample. They were asked to rate the liking towards taste using the same 15-point scale used in blind and packaging conditions, and converted to a 100-point scale (1 = dislike extremely, 50 = neither like nor dislike, 100 = like extremely) and willingness to purchase the product (1 = not at all, 50 = neither likely or not likely, 100 = very likely) on the tablet PCs using the bio-sensory App (Fuentes et al., 2018). All the measurements were taken using a continuous scale to be able to analyse quantitatively (Barber et al., 2012). The WTP obtained was used to attain correlations with liking towards packaging and liking towards taste. 2.7. Statistical analysis Statistical analyses were performed using Minitab® 18.1 software. The liking towards the packaging and taste of the product were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, α = 0.05) and Pearson correlations (r). For all conditions, the liking response (100-point scale) was analyzed using ANOVA accounting for subject variation. Then, inferences on the pairwise comparisons between the packages were considered. To obtain the details of the pairwise comparisons, estimates of the differences, and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for multiple comparisons using Tukey's method were calculated. A t-test was conducted to identify significant differences between the packaging and informed conditions. Multiple regression analysis was used to obtain predictions of the liking towards packaging and taste scores from the packaging and informed conditions using the emotion-based words as predictors. A forward selection stepwise procedure was used to obtain a model in each case. Emotion terms that were not used at all for a given condition were not considered as potential predictors. The effect of liking towards taste and liking towards packaging on WTP was tested using multiple regression analysis. Correlation matrices were developed for the data from liking towards packaging with taste, WTP with liking towards package and WTP with liking towards taste using a customized code written in Matlab® R2018a (Mathworks Inc., Matick. MA. USA). The McNemar test was conducted using XLSTAT (Version, 2018.1., Addinsoft, Paris, France) to test the difference between the packaging and informed conditions for the percentage of frequencies of emotion-based terms selected (CATA responses). Correspondence analysis (CA) and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) were also conducted using XLSTAT (Version, 2018.1., Addinsoft, USA) for the packaging and informed conditions using the emotion-based terms of each packaging design. The CA was conducted to explore relationships among the selected emotion-based terms with the packaging concepts. On the other hand, PCoA was conducted on the mean liking scores and the total frequency percentages of the emotion-based terms for each concept to examine and visualize the similarities and the differences of the data. Cochran's Q test was conducted to study the differences between the frequencies of the selected emotion-based terms in the packaging and informed conditions. 3. Results 3.1. Blind, packaging and informed liking The mean values of the taste liking scores for all concept designs including the blind condition sample in the packaging and informed conditions are shown in Table 2. There were significant differences in the mean liking scores towards taste of blind condition to the everyday (p < 0.0001), premium (p < 0.0001), bold (p < 0.0001) and fun (p < 0.0001) concepts. The taste liking of special (p < 0.0001) and healthy (p < 0.0001) concepts in the informed condition was significantly higher than the liking towards packaging. The liking score of the chocolate in the blind condition was the highest when compared to the packaging and informed conditions of all concepts. Table 2. Blind, packaging and informed mean liking scores ± Standard deviation (SD) of products evaluated under blind, packaging and informed conditions by consumers. Packaging concept Liking – Packaging condition Liking – Blind and Informed conditions Blind condition N/A 72.3 ± 19.20a (blind) Bold 57.6 ± 23.71a,A 55.6 ± 20.02b,A (informed) Fun 54.6 ± 26.09a,A 54.5 ± 22.69b,A (informed) Everyday 56.5 ± 21.78a,A 56.9 ± 22.03b,A (informed) Special 56.5 ± 24.84a,B 71.3 ± 16.72a,A (informed) Healthy 60.3 ± 22.15a,B 70.7 ± 19.37a,A (informed) Premium 62.7 ± 20.74a,A 55.7 ± 24.56b,A (informed) a, b Means with different superscripts in each column indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) by the Tukey's Studentized Range test. A, B Means with different superscripts in each row indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) by t-test. N/A refers to Non-Applicable since there was no packaging involved in the blind condition, and the liking scores were for the taste. 3.2. Relationship between the liking towards the package (packaging condition) and the taste (informed condition) of the product The correlation matrix between the liking towards the packaging and the taste of the product from the packaging and informed conditions are shown in Fig. 2. Based on the results, there is a low to moderate positive correlation (r = 0.28 to r = 0.59) between the liking of the packaging and the liking towards the taste of the chocolate of each packaging concept, even though the same chocolate was used for all packaging concepts. The strongest correlation was shown in the special packaging concept. Furthermore, there are positive correlations between the liking towards taste of everyday with fun (r = 0.26) and bold (r = 0.29); premium with fun and everyday (r = 0.3); healthy with special (r = 0.37). There were non-significant differences observed between different concepts. This is because different concepts conveyed different messages which were not always related to each other. 3.3. Total frequency percentages for the selected emotion-terms (packaging and informed conditions) The percentage of emotion-based terms selected during the evaluation of the packaging and taste (informed condition) were obtained (Table 3). In the packaging condition, the total frequency percentages for each emotion-based term ranged from 0.0% to 66.7%. In the informed condition, it ranged from 0.0% to 49.1%. All emotion-based terms were selected under all packaging concepts. However, the term discipline was not selected by any consumer irrespective of the packaging concept. The results of the Cochran's Q test are shown in Table 3, which shows that there were significant differences between the packaging concepts based on the emotion-based terms. The selection of emotion-based terms in the packaging condition showed a higher number of significant differences (p < 0.05) among the packaging concepts than in the informed condition. The emotion-based terms family (p = 0.29), relaxing (p = 0.52), silly (p = 0.06), wisdom (p = 0.06), bright (p = 0.1), togetherness (p = 0.45), discipline (p = 0.36), shocked (p = 0.11), caring (p = 0.27), calm (p = 0.22), friendship (p = 0.21), health (p = 0.1), happy (p = 0.22), balance (p = 0.3), energy (p = 0.2) and peace (p = 0.16), which accounted for 66.7%, did not show significant differences (p > 0.05) between the concepts in the informed condition, whereas 29.2% of emotion-based terms: togetherness (p = 0.15), caring (p = 0.13), fun (p = 0.1), friendship (p = 0.58), luxury (p = 0.1), happy (p = 0.1) and achievement (p = 0.3) did not show significant differences (p > 0.05) between the packaging concepts in the packaging condition. Table 3. Emotion-terms: percentages of selection and the Cochran's Q test for each emotion in the packaging and informed conditions. Emotion-based terms Packaging condition Informed condition Bold Fun Everyday Special Healthy Premium Bold Fun Everyday Special Healthy Premium Excitement 29.8%b 28.1% b 7.0% a 12.3%a,b 19.3%a,b 26.3%a,b 24.6%a,b 40.4% b 10.5% a 5.3% a 24.6%a,b 17.5%a,b Family 10.5%a,b 7.0%a 28.1%b 10.5%a,b 7.0%a 10.5%a,b 7.0%a 10.5%a 17.5%a 10.5%a 7.0%a 12.3%a Relaxing 1.8%a 19.3%a,b 26.3%b 28.1% b 24.6% b 7.0%a,b 19.3%a 24.6%a 33.3%a 22.8% a 26.3% a 22.8%a Silly 29.8%b,c 36.8%c 8.8% a,b 3.5%a 10.5%a,b 5.3% a,b 15.8% a 12.3%a 5.3% a 3.5%a 3.5% a 10.5% a Wisdom 0%a 0 %a 10.5%a,b 22.8%b 17.5%a,b 24.6%b 1.8%a 5.3%a 8.8%a 19.3%a 15.8%a 7.0%a Bright 33.3%b,c 43.9%c 10.5%a,b 3.5%a 10.5%a,b 12.3%a,b 21.1%a 29.8%a 10.5%a 15.8%a 10.5%a 8.8%a Togetherness 5.3%a 1.8%a 10.5%a 12.3%a 7.0%a 10.5%a 8.8%a 5.3%a 15.8%a 14.0%a 12.3%a 10.5%a Discipline 0.0% a 0.0%a 0.0%a 0.0% a 0.0% a 0.0% a 5.3% a 5.3% a 12.3% a 5.3% a 3.5% a 8.8% a Shocked 24.6%b 8.8%a,b 1.8%a 5.3%a,b 3.5%a 0%a 17.5%a 5.3%a 7.0%a 0.070a 0.070a 0.123a Caring 0%a 0%a 12.3%a 7.0%a 10.5%a 5.3%a 0%a 1.8%a 8.8%a 8.8%a 12.3%a 7.0%a Adventure 36.8%b,c 19.3%a.b 3.5%a 8.8% a 50.9% c 17.5%a,b 17.5%a,b 10.5%a,b 3.5%a 5.3% a 26.3% b 10.5%a,b Success 1.8%a 1.8%a 10.5%a,b 17.5%a,b 8.8%a,b 22.8%b 3.5%a 5.3%a 5.3%a 17.5%a,b 17.5%a,b 26.3%b Fun 47.4%b 52.6%b 5.3%a 3.5%a 15.8%a 15.8%a 26.3%a,b 35.1%b 8.8%a 8.8%a 14.0%a,b 14.0%a,b Calm 0%a 12.3%a,b 45.6%c 42.1% c 28.1%b,c 15.8%a,b 21.1%a 24.6%a 45.6%a 38.6% a 29.8% a 36.8% a Friendship 10.5%a 8.8%a 7.0%a 5.3%a 3.5%a 7.0%a 5.3%a 15.8%a 12.3%a 12.3%a 7.0%a 8.8%a Luxury 3.5%a 3.5%a 8.8%a 61.4%b 17.5%a 66.7%b 12.3%a 10.5%a 12.3%a 42.1%b 24.6%a,b 42.1%b Health 8.8%a 10.5%a 12.3%a,b 21.1%a,b 29.8% b 24.6%a,b 21.1%a 19.3%a 21.1%a 26.3%a 33.3% a 31.6%a Happy 28.1%a 31.6% a 12.3% a 12.3% a 8.8% a 15.8% a 28.1%a 33.3% a 21.1% a 29.8% a 38.6% a 26.3% a Balance 3.5%a 3.5%a,b 33.3% c 40.4% c 19.3%a,b,c 22.8%b,c 22.8%a 19.3%a 33.3% a 28.1% a 35.1%a 28.1%a Energy 31.6%b,c 42.1%c 8.8%a,b 5.3%a 31.6%b,c 24.6%a,b,c 28.1% a 33.3%a 17.5%a 22.8%a 31.6%a 24.6%a Sophisticated 19.3%a,b 1.8%a 21.1%a,b 42.1%b 29.8%b 43.9%b 19.3%a 8.8%a 12.3%a 49.1%b 31.6%a,b 28.1%a Colorful 61.4% b 52.6% b 5.3%a 5.3% a 12.3% a 5.3%a 21.1%a,b 21.1% b 5.3%a,b 1.8% a 10.5%a,b 5.3%a,b Achievement 1.8%a 3.5%a 17.5%a 10.5%a 10.5%a 21.1%a 0%a 3.5%a,b 5.3%a,b 21.1%b 8.8%a,b 15.8%a,b Peace 1.8%a 8.8%a,b 24.6%b,c 49.1% c 17.5%a,b 7.0%a,b 15.8%a 12.3%a 29.8%a 33.3% a 26.3%a 21.1%a The values represent the percentages across consumers for each combination of concepts and emotion-based terms in packaging and informed conditions. a,b,c Values that do not share a letter are significantly different (p < 0.05). Bold values show concepts that were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the packaging and informed conditions using the McNemar test. The McNemar test compares the differences between the packaging and informed conditions for each emotion-based term (correlated-proportions). The emotion-based terms excitement, relaxing, silly, discipline, adventurous, calm, happy, healthy, balance, energy, colorful and peace expressed significant differences (p < 0.05) while the terms family, wisdom, bright, togetherness, shocked, caring, success, fun, friendly, luxury, sophisticated and achievement were not significant (p > 0.05) in the selection during the packaging and informed conditions. The selection of the term “excitement” increased significantly for the fun, (p < 0.001), and every day (p = 0.001) concepts in the informed condition compared to that of the packaging condition (Table 3). The term “adventure” was more associated with the packaging condition in all concepts and its selection significantly decreased (bold: p = 0.01, fun: p = 0.004, every day: p = 0.001, special: p = 0.002, healthy: p = 0.02, premium: p = 0.003) during the informed condition. The term “colorful” obtained the highest percentage in the bold and fun concepts, while its selection significantly decreased (bold: p = 0.004, fun: p < 0.0001) for the informed condition. Special and premium concepts obtained the highest percentages for “luxury” in the packaging condition. The terms “happy” (bold: p < 0.0001, fun: p < 0.0001, every day: p = 0.005, special: p = 0.01, healthy: p = 0.04, premium: p = 0.004) and “discipline” (p < 0.001 for all concepts) obtained significantly higher percentages in the informed condition than in the packaging condition. 3.4. Emotional profiles across the packaging and informed conditions 3.4.1. Correspondence analysis Figs. 3a and 3b show the correspondence analysis (CA) comparing emotion-based terms obtained under the packaging and informed conditions, respectively. In the CA of the packaging condition (Fig. 3a), the first dimension (F1) explained 68.67% of data variability, while the second dimension (F2) accounted for 14.89%, hence it explained 83.55% of the total data variability. In the CA of the informed condition (Fig. 3b), F1 explained 59.32% of data variability, while F2 accounted for 18.16%, hence it explained 77.48% of the total data variability. The emotion-based terms were loaded heavily on F1 in the packaging condition, while it was more scattered across F1 and F2 in the informed condition. However, there were slight differences in the emotion-based terms loaded on either ends of F1 and F2 for the packaging and informed conditions. For example, the first dimension for packaging condition was associated with achievement, togetherness, shocked and fun whereas for informed condition it was associated with bright, wisdom and health. In the packaging condition, premium was associated with luxury and wisdom, whereas fun and bold concepts were associated with happy, fun, bright, colorful, energy, silly and shocked. The everyday concept was associated with relaxing, while the healthy concept was associated with health. The special concept was associated with achievement, balance and togetherness. In the informed condition, special concept was associated with wisdom, whereas premium and healthy were with health and luxury. Fun and bold concepts were associated with bright and fun, while everyday was related to discipline in the informed condition. Fig. 3. Correspondence analysis obtained from the (a) packaging and (b) informed conditions. The packaging concepts are shown in blue while the emotion-based terms are in red. 3.4.2. Principal coordinate analysis Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was conducted using the emotion-based terms and the liking scores. Figs. 4a and 4b show the results of the packaging and informed conditions, respectively. Liking of packaging condition was positively related with emotion-based terms such as achievement, balance, wisdom, success and relaxing, while negatively related with shocked, silly, adventure, family and colorful. Liking of informed condition was positively related with family, fun, excitement friendship and bright while negatively related with luxury, success, wisdom, achievement, sophisticated, discipline and caring. Fig. 4. Principal coordinate analysis obtained from the (a) packaging and (b) informed conditions. The mean liking score for the concepts is shown in the yellow box. Distribution of other emotional terms with respect to liking is shown in the plot. 3.5. Regression analysis (general linear model) predicting liking using the selection of emotions Emotion-based terms associated with the prediction of liking varied within the packaging concepts (data not shown). The selection of the word ‘silly’ significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the liking towards the packaging (packaging condition) and the liking towards the taste of product (informed condition). The emotion-based term ‘calm’ significantly (p = 0.02) reduced the liking during the packaging condition, while it increased the liking during the informed condition. Emotion terms ‘shocked’ and ‘discipline’ significantly reduced (p < 0.001) the liking during the packaging condition and informed condition, respectively. Based on regression analysis, the term ‘sophisticated’ predicted the liking score to be increased in the special concept, while it reduced the liking score in the healthy concept. Terms such as happy, health, fun, bright, relaxing, peace, achievement, togetherness, balance, excitement and friendship significantly increased (p < 0.05) the liking irrespective of the condition (packaging/informed). 3.6. Effect of liking towards taste and packaging on the willingness to purchase (WTP) The correlation matrices for liking towards packaging (packaging condition) and liking towards taste (informed condition) with WTP are shown in Figs. 5 and 6, respectively. The liking towards packaging and taste were significantly associated with WTP for all six packaging concepts. Fig. 5. Correlation matrix showing the relationship between willingness to purchase vs. liking towards packaging for each concept in the packaging condition. Only significant correlations are presented (p < 0.05). The color bar represents the correlation coefficients in a scale from -1 to 1, where the blue side denotes the positive correlations, while yellow represents the negative correlations Abbreviations: WTP = Willingness to purchase, P = Liking of packaging. Fig. 6. Correlation matrix showing the relationship between willingness to purchase vs. liking towards taste for each concept in informed condition. Only significant correlations are presented (p < 0.05). The color bar represents the correlation coefficients in a scale from -1 to 1, where the blue side denotes the positive correlations, while yellow represents the negative correlations Abbreviations: WTP = Willingness to purchase, T = Liking of taste. Furthermore, in additon to the correlations of WTP with liking towards respective packaging concepts, there were additional correlations observed. As shown in Fig. 5, WTP of bold was positively correlated with WTP of premium, healthy and fun concepts as well as the liking towards special and healthy packaging concepts. WTP of fun was positively correlated with WTP of everyday, special and premium while everyday was correlated with premium and special. The WTP of special was positively correlated with WTP of healthy and special as well as the liking towards packaging of premium. The liking of the taste (informed condition) had the strongest correlations (r = 0.65 to r = 0.87) with WTP when compared to liking of the packaging (r = 0.34 to r = 0.56). Based on Fig. 6, WTP of bold was positively correlated with WTP of healthy, premium, fun and liking towards taste of fun, every day and premium. WTP of fun was positively correlated with WTP of everyday, special, premium and liking towards taste of everyday and premium. WTP of everyday was correlated with WTP of special, premium and likng towards the taste of fun and premium. WTP of special was correlated with WTP of healthy, premium and taste liking of bold. WTP of healthy and premium were positively correlated with taste liking of special and everyday respectively. Positive correlations between liking towards taste was observed between everyday with bold and fun; premium with fun and evreyday with special. Taste of everyday was negatively correlated with taste of special and healthy. As shown in Equation 1 (Eq.(1)), the WTP could be explained by liking towards taste, liking towards packaging and the packaging concepts themselves using a multiple regression analysis (general linear model). Table 4 explains the factors which affected the WTP in developing a general linear model. The correlation coefficient of liking towards taste and packaging were positive and explain that higher liking (taste and packaging) was associated with higher willingness to purchase. However, in the case of the concepts, for example, the coefficients of premium and bold were negative, which means that these concepts had a negative effect on the WTP. WTP=0.017+0.732(Xliking,taste)+0.027(Xliking,packaging−0.988(Xbold)+0.199(Xfun)+0.356(Xeveryday) +0.702(Xspecial)+0.523(Xhealthy−0.791(Xpremium)">WTP=0.017+0.732(Xliking,taste)+0.027 (Xliking,packaging−0.988(Xbold)+0.199(Xfun)+0.356(Xeveryday)+0.702(Xspecial)+0.523(Xhealthy)−0.791(Xpremium) Table 4. Coefficients in regression equation for the general linear model (willingness to purchase vs. liking towards taste, liking towards package and package concept). Variable Coefficient (Coef.) SE Coef. T-value P-value Liking towards Taste 0.732 0.052 14.2 <0.001 Liking towards package 0.027 0.007 3.86 <0.001 Bold -0.988 0.275 -3.59 <0.001 Fun 0.199 0.275 0.72 0.470 Everyday 0.356 0.273 1.30 0.194 Special 0.702 0.282 2.49 0.013 Healthy 0.523 0.280 1.87 0.063 Premium -0.791 0.285 -2.78 0.006 The coefficient for liking towards taste is higher than the coefficients of liking towards packaging and the packaging concepts. Coef. = Coefficient, SE – Standard Error, T-value = Test statistic, P-value = Significant level (α = 0.05). 4. Discussion The effect of chocolate packaging designs on sensory attributes was tested in this study based on liking scores, emotion-based terms and willingness to purchase. It was measured by combining a blind liking test with an informed tasting of the same chocolate packed in different packaging concepts. This study shows that there was a positive correlation between liking towards taste and packaging. However, tasting generated higher liking scores than the visual liking towards the packaging (Table 2). This can be due to the lack of familiarity and trust towards the novel packaging concepts. This is in contrast to a previous study, which explains that the liking towards the packaging was higher than the taste when using commercially available blackcurrant squashes (Ng et al., 2013). The variation of liking scores in the blind condition to the informed condition confirms the effect of packaging on the taste. In the present study, bold (p < 0.0001), fun (p < 0.0001), every day (p < 0.0001) and premium (p < 0.0001) concepts showed a significant decrease in liking scores for the informed condition than for the blind condition. As explained by Combris et al. (2009), extrinsic characteristics like packaging can both increase and decrease consumer acceptance of a product that is well liked in blind conditions. The significant decrease in liking in the informed condition of the bold, fun, every day and premium concepts can be due to the disconfirmation of the expectations of the product when compared to the packaging. The product provided inside all packaging concepts was a plain dark chocolate, whereas the packaging communicated that they were chili flavored (bold), contained chewy candy (fun), milk chocolate (every day) and contained premium berries, nuts and peels (premium), which the consumers could not experience. This further confirms that the food packaging has played a major role in sensory experience of participants. It has been found that food evoked emotions are better predictors of food choice than using liking scores alone (Dalenberg et al., 2014). Thus, the liking scores were combined with the selection of emotion-based terms in the present study. The significant variation in selection of emotion-based terms in the packaging condition (70.8%) than that of the informed condition (33.3%) explains the emotional engagement of consumers during the evaluation of the food packaging. The difference in emotions generated for the packaging and informed conditions replicated the findings by Gutjar et al. (2015), where intrinsic and extrinsic product properties elicited, in part, different emotions. The non-selection of the word ‘discipline’ by any of the participants for any packaging concept under the packaging condition can be taken into consideration for future research. The significant differences in the selected proportions of some emotion-based terms (excitement, relaxing, silly, discipline, adventurous, calm, happy, healthy, balance, energy, colorful and peace) between the packaging and informed conditions using McNemar test (Table 3) shows that the packaging concepts arouse different emotions in the mind of the consumers during the evaluation of the packaging materials and tasting of the samples. This further confirms that the packaging concept affects how people perceive the taste of the product based on emotions. The CA (Fig. 3) showed different patterns of selection of emotions in the packaging and informed conditions. The selection was more scattered throughout the matrix in the informed condition. This may be because taste and visual stimuli were responsible for a higher dispersion. Based on the PCoA (Fig. 4), the positive association of liking with the terms such as wisdom, achievement and success in packaging condition and negative association of those words in the informed condition can be due to the lack of meeting the expectations created by the packaging in the packaging condition. The negative effect on WTP of bold and premium concepts may be because the expectations created by the packaging for the bold (chili) and premium (berries and nuts) concepts in the informed condition were not met. The lower positive effect on WTP of the fun concept may be since it communicated a chewy caramel chocolate, which was not experienced in the tasting at the informed condition. Every day, special and healthy concepts did not communicate any addition of nuts, berries, or caramel to the chocolate, and the consumers expected a plain chocolate, which was the chocolate given in the informed condition. Hence they expressed positive correlations. The findings of this study can be used in product design and development to control product intrinsic and extrinsic attributes by enhancing the emotional attachment towards the food products. This study eliminates the limitation of the study conducted by Gutjar et al. (2015), where they assessed liking only in the blind condition and it was recommended to evaluate liking at packaging and informed conditions, whereas this study assessed liking at all three stages (blind, packaging, and informed). These results agree with recent studies showing that a wide range of extrinsic product attributes such as packaging/branding (Chaya et al., 2015; Ng et al., 2013; Schifferstein et al., 2013; Spinelli et al., 2015), can significantly influence product-evoked emotions. Moreover, the background color impacts on food perception and behavior (Spence, 2018). Findings of Spinelli et al. (2014) indicated that emotion measures can deliver valuable information of how well consumers' expectations are met. In the current study, some emotion-based words (happy, health, fun, bright, relaxing, peace, achievement, togetherness, balance, excitement and friendship) significantly affected the liking scores of both packaging and informed conditions. This study did not take into consideration, specific conditions during recruiting consumers. Further studies may be conducted by recruiting consumers with specific conditions (liking towards milk/dark chocolate, and consumption frequency, among others) to obtain deep insights about consumer responses based on different consumer groups. Also, a source of bias could exist in the informed condition when consumers tasted a plain chocolate and the package was labelled for example as chilli (where maybe consumers tried to search for the extra aromatic notes), or in the premium (where consumers could try to look for the extra nuts). This bias was not evaluated in this study. However, it could be able to obtain valuable information by taking this bias into consideration in future studies. 5. Conclusion The liking towards products are affected by the expectations generated by the packaging. The taste of food products strongly affects the willingness to purchase. There are variations in emotion-based terms associated with food packaging and the product, where higher emotional attachment is associated with the packaging than the taste of product. The findings of this study can be used in product design and development to control product intrinsic and extrinsic attributes by enhancing the emotional attachment towards the food products. It is proposed that a cross-disciplinary approach with a combination of sensory and consumer science as well as psychology and physiology is important to understand the implicit response of consumers to meet the expectations of products in the market. Declarations Author contribution statement Nadeesha M. Gunaratne: Conceived and designed the experiments; Performed the experiments; Analyzed and interpreted the data; Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data; Wrote the paper. Sigfredo Fuentes, Caroline Francis, Hollis Ashman: Conceived and designed the experiments; Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data; Wrote the paper. Thejani M. Gunaratne: Performed the experiments; Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data; Wrote the paper. Damir Dennis Torrico, Claudia Gonzalez Viejo: Conceived and designed the experiments; Analyzed and interpreted the data; Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data; Wrote the paper. Frank R. Dunshea: Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data; Wrote the paper. Funding statement This work was supported by the Australian Government through the Australian Research Council. IH120100053 ‘Unlocking the Food Value Chain: Australian industry transformation for ASEAN markets’. Competing interest statement The authors declare no conflict of interest. Additional information No additional information is available for this paper. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Australian Government through the Australian Research Council. IH120100053 ‘Unlocking the Food Value Chain: Australian industry transformation for ASEAN markets’. ReferencesAnderson, J., Donnellan, B., Hevner, A., 2011. Exploring the Relationship between Design Science Research and Innovation: a Case Study of Innovation at Chevron. Paper presented at the European Design Science Symposium.Barber, N., Kuo, P.-J., Bishop, M., Goodman Jr., R., 2012. Measuring psychographics to assess purchase intention and willingness to pay. J. Consum. Mark. 29 (4), 280–292.Cardello, A., 2007. Measuring consumer expectations to improve food product development. In: Consumer-led Food Product Development. 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Profitable PET line FOR WATER BOTTLES
In recent years, the production and consumption of bottled water has grown to two digits. Whether directly or indirectly, PET bottles reach the filling groups to excel in a more sustainable market. l Nadia Perera* * Editor at Contenidos. The company Abant Su has become one of the main mineral spring water-bottling plants in Turkey. In order to continue to expand and to be among the three best suppliers in the medium and long term, the bottler chose the water technology and service KHS. Since 2008, the Turkish company has successfully marketed spring water under the Abant label. The company, which is part of the Kaya Holding group, has constantly been expanding its production facilities. In 2015, it opened a second production site in Gölcuk at the Mamara Sea east of Istanbul. The company has now become a new stationary bottling line, which was built by KHS. Kaya Holding, CEO of BurakKaya, explains that they opted for the modernization of their technology so as to provide a better quality of packaging and to improve the efficiency of their production lines, since they are as important as the purity and taste of their product. Abant Su wanted a particularly compact machine, which was perfectly adapted to their specific needs. The KHS* line provided a slightly smaller stretch moulder equipped with 18 instead of usually 20 to 22 stations. At the same time, production increased from 2,250 to 2,500 bottles per cavity, resulting in a total system capacity of up to 45,000 bottles per hour. Another advantage of the new line is that it allows for saving more energy. The system uses around 30% less electricity compared to other technologies. It also uses up to 40% less compressed air. The 0.5-liter bottle weighs only 9 grams and is currently the lightest on the market in the region. Moreover, it requires 10% less material. Efficiency throughout the process The packaging line has a labelling and a packing machine that ensure that Abant PET bottles are not contaminated by dust, which helps to reinforce the image of purity of the brand. The packages also remain stable during transport. The system is a station of labels by means of rollers, which apply a layer of gumming on the bottles to later place the labels. This type of solution can be used with films, aluminum foil or paper labels in unidirectional, cylindrical and rectangular containers. The label material goes from the reel to the labeling station, where it is cut to the exact length. The cutting system is optimized with self-sharpening blades, which offer a high operational reliability and a higher cutting precision. The team can label up to 50,000 bottles per hour. What has represented the Turkish company is that it saved time and money thanks to the correction of their labeling systems. The company Abant explains that the market demands a robust, but attractive secondary packaging, which is profitable to produce and also has a sustainable aspect. For the brand, the packaging of its bottles is of the utmost importance, since it is not just the material playing an important role, but so does the presentation of the packaging, which is now of great importance in order to reach a greater number of consumers. The system saves resources, since the corrugated trays and pads, which were previously used to stabilize the package, are no longer necessary. With the application of the system, the bottles can no longer move within the package, packing line, transportation, or at the time when consumers are buying the product. Another feature, which buyers viewed as being favorable, is that the packaging has a handle so the transportation is easier and more convenient. The changes in its production have allowed the company Abant to reach better results and to reduce the costs in the entire packaging line. Innovations in the PET packaging line In order to meet the growing demand of its customers, the British company producing natural mineral water, Montgomery Waters spring, acquired a second solution of a packaging line for PET bottles. The firm opted for the Sidel Matrix equipment. The company, which is based in Wales, has several sources dedicated to the supply of gaseous or non-gaseous water, flavored and enriched with vitamin, under its brands Aquaroma, Celtic Spring and Aquavit, and it also bottled for other manufacturers. Among the firm's customers that are part of the British bottled water market—with a volume of two billion Euros—there are several leaders in the retail sector, sports club chains and hotel establishments throughout the United Kingdom. Paul Delves, executive director at Montgomery Waters, explains that they started blowing their plants and updated the labeling operation in 2012 by way of modernizing the high-speed line, which increased the production capacity by 50%. "A greater demand on the part of both consumers and our customers implied the need to invest in a traditional line, which offered a maximum capacity of adaptation and could be integrated into the solutions we had already installed, so as to provide flexibility to operators in all our lines and to reduce the training needs and maintenance costs," the executive explains. Experts of the solution state that the choice of a complete line solution for PET involves much more than the sum of its individual parts: it covers everything from the concept of packaging to the process of equipment, the design and supply of the line, the productivity management analysis, and the continuous attention for improving the line’s performance. The planning of the complete solution must overcome the challenges of the supply chain with the implicit permanent goal of achieving the lowest cost of ownership. Therefore, the machinery is equipped with a Blendfill version of the Sidel Matrix carbonator, which means that it uses a single intermediate tank and allows for a reduction of the CO2 consumption. The 70 filling valves are equipped with electronically controlled flowmeters so as to ensure a precise filling volume inside the PET bottle, and thus to prevent spills and waste of the beverage. The labelling machine is a modular coil machine, which can be installed in many different arrangements and which can easily be reconfigured. The times of format changing are 30% faster than previous generations of labelling machines, while stoppages in production due to maintenance are 40% shorter. Once the line was installed, the performance was at 90%. The layout and problem of limited space was redesigned by installing an automatic storage system for preforms. The two-liter bottle line operates 24 hours a day and seven days a week during the peak production season.
Innovation, packaging AND THE EXPERIENCE OF THE CUSTOMER
Today in a world where people are hyper-connected, where our pace of life is 24/7, we are looking more often for those products identifying us as people, as users with the ability to choose. l José Gutiérrez* *Foldable Packaging Division Manager of HP Indigo Latin America. Jose.email@example.com I usually start my presentations with a phrase that leaves more than one assistant thinking: there are three types of companies, those that make things happen, those that see things happen, and those that wonder what happened. Because it encourages them to make an assessment of where they stand with respect to their competition and in addition to having a challenging tone for each one of the companies who are attending, it also invites them to reflect on the moment we are going through as consumers, as suppliers and as brands. In recent years, the communication processes have changed drastically, and this inevitably shows us that the processes of involvement, evaluation, comparison and acquisition of products have done so as well. If we leave 15 years ago, I am sure that none of you who are reading this article (or at least the majority) would have thought that the largest transport company in the world today (if their name begins with a U in that application of their cell phone) does not own a single vehicle, that the most important real estate rental company (that other application being called Air ... and which is also used from their cell phone) does not own any of the properties that it advertises, we would believe it. Beyond showing the dizzying evolution of technology, this confirms that business models are inevitably transforming. Today, the packaging is not the exception. The packaging is facing a process of evolution, which is making innovation in technology and the business model to be mandatory throughout the ecosystem, from brands of consumer products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, beverages, etc., to the design, advertising and marketing agencies, without leaving aside the packaging converters, who are undoubtedly between the rock and the hard place when facing the demands of flexibility, diversity of products, and the demands of their customers where the pressure of the price always stands out. Undoubtedly, the technology, which is currently attracting attention on the packaging production market is digital printing, which has allowed us today to see one of the most impressive marketing campaigns in history by making use of the massive "customization" of a beverage commonly known as soda, on whose labels hundreds of different names are printed and which manages to reconnect to one of the most valuable brands in the world with a generation, which is far from having any interest in consuming it and had a tendency not to do so . The results were impressive when thinking about the production of millions and millions of labels with a diversity of names, which are varying from country to country, while all of them are printed in digital, and this leads us to break the first paradigm, which has dominated us for years, namely digital printing, It is only made for short shots. Actually, no, digital technology is designed for short shots, medium shots and for large shots. This is not defined by the cost per print or by the capacity of the press, it is defined by the business need of each of the customers, of each of the brands, and these are generally aligned with what the market is asking for. It is inevitable to accept the idea that digital printing is more expensive than conventional printing when we look at the unit cost of a printed piece. But what happens when we start it by analyzing the efficiency of digital technology, while a packaging converter faces multiple changes in the designs which it has to produce every day, what happens when a packaging converter has to make use of multiple substrates in the ones we are going to print, how many sheets or meters we have to waste to make the corresponding color adjustments for each one of these changes, what happens when we have to do color repetitions and no minimum variation between the runs is accepted, what happens to the time we have to invest in the adjustments between each of the jobs. The answer is indisputable, it is irrefutable that today's digital printing technology is the most efficient technology for short runs, multiple changes, uses of different substrates, machine settings between job changes and to perform repetitions. There is no discussion, it is the nature of this technology, and denying it would be as inadequate as denying that conventional technology is irreplaceable in the long run. Since we passed the issue of efficiency in production with certain characteristics, we come to the subject of innovation and added value. First, the question is born: are customers willing to pay more for a printed product in digital technology? The answer is simple: the type of technology (whether conventional or digital) in which a product with added value is printed is irrelevant. I have not found nowadays the first person to buy a product because its packaging has a stochastic plot, I have not seen any consumers of consumer products buying a box of cookies because it is printed in conventional or digital technology, In general, our consumption habits and our purchasing preferences are hardly defined by the technology in which the packaging of the products we consume is printed, and in counterpart, what do they tell me of those willing to pay an extra for a box of chocolates, which has a photo or an element that refers to a pleasant memory of our life, or that they tell me to give our children the opportunity to design their own cookie box customized for Christmas. In these cases, we are not only able to pay more, but also to not only order a box. We ask for more than one to give to our loved ones, and share our experience as consumers of a product. It is indisputable that—like people all over the world—we are willing to pay an extra value for a product that has a differentiating and value-added element, and if you do not believe me, I invite you to look at these figures and these data, which we found in a study of the consulting firm Euromonitor International: The sales of high-cost products have increased by 25.9% in the last 5 years. During this period, the average GDP growth was 2.8% per year. In 2015, the luxury market in Mexico exceeded U$3,685 million, while it exceeded U$3,190 million in Brazil. After these two markets, the countries which experienced the highest growth in the consumption of high-cost items are: Chile, Colombia and Argentina. 68% of buyers of luxury products acquire the products because they like to "show off", while a similar percentage of buyers buy the product because they want to feel "unique" or different from the market average. A significant part of these buyers are young adults who still do not have children or family, and whose income is destined for them. Today, brands have the responsibility to make our purchase of the products a unique and unparalleled experience. There is digital printing technology for this purpose, which undoubtedly has unparalleled advantages, such as the use of 7 colors, the handling of ink and not toner for printing on any cardboard, on synthetic substrates of 10 to 24 points, of an FDA certified press. for making primary and secondary packaging, and all this with the advantage of adding elements, which make us feel like a special consumer and thus drastically improves the shopping experience.
FOUR TENDENCIES in snack packaging
Today, consumers are more prone than ever to snack all day, even when they socialize over the weekend. Actually, sandwiches represent more than 50% of all occasions to eat. l Gil Horsky* * Head of Global Innovation at Mondeléz International. One of the most significant changes that occurred in the way people are consuming food is the way snacks are invading traditional meal times. The younger consumers are exchanging the three most traditional daily meals with five or six substantial snacks per day. There are four tendencies to snack consumption trends which packaging and product designers can take advantage of so as to create combinations of products and packages that help win more consumers. Social snacks: consumers do not want to snack on their own. Sharing and personalization can turn the snack into a social activity. Nutrition is the mission: No matter whether it is addiction or functional ingredients to the restoration of health conditions and intolerances, snack companies must comply with the consumer welfare. Pure enjoyment: from chocolate inhalers to pastries with lollipops, smart producers are turning "appetizers" into "experiences" which are encouraging and enriching. Instant Everywhere: moving shopping lifestyles require new retail formats, for example, self-vending machines, which make the purchase of snacks instant, affordable and fun. It is incredible to think it has just been a few decades ago when the category of packaged snacks barely existed, while today it is one of the food segments with the number of occasions of daily snacks in constant growth. With this growing role, snacks are increasingly present in the lives of people, while their expectations of these snacks are increasing. An important element in this growth has been driven by the innovation in the packaging that made the products more "snackable" and available. But unfortunately, packaging remains the black sheep in the marketing world. Compared to other marketing levers, it does not get enough attention, and its impact is still underestimated by many food and snack manufacturers. However, Nielsen has shown that optimized packages generate an average of 5.5% increase in sales revenue, and can drive the test, build the value of the brand, and serve as a key means for communicating the work of an innovation. A change in mentality that is still required by many manufacturers is the understanding that they should place the exploration and development of the packaging at the forefront of their innovation process. Some manufacturers are only focussing on the edible product and leave the package until the end of the process as an afterthought. This approach has shown that it does not work to exceed the expectations of consumers who are looking for new snack offers. The packaging requires the same attention by sellers and product developers as the appetizer. Social snacks Many people feel isolated and stressed, and are looking for more ways to connect with each other, especially with new tools available in the social networks. As snacks become an integral part of consumers' lifestyles, sharing them becomes another important way to create and increase social experiences. The rapid technological development of digital printing and 3D printing has opened new possibilities in terms of the customization of products and packaging. A great example are the customized Oreo Colorellados packages, which consumers customize online, either for their own consumption or to share with their friends and family. Mission: Nutrition Allergies, intolerances and the rapid increase in conditions, such as obesity and diabetes, are changing the people’s opinion on snack. Being healthy is increasingly aspirational, since the consumers become more aware of the choices of the foods they consume. This also means that consumers expect food companies to be part of the solution and not the problem. Developing the correct positioning of the brand and the corresponding packaging design plays a key role in the effective communication of the benefits for the health of the consumer. I'm a big believer that—with respect to package design and health benefits—les is more. Therefore, it is essential to have a clean design with a unique benefit, making it clear on the packaging to the consumer that this product will help them improve their health. A good example is Belvita Breakfast Biscuits, a product which is unique in its positioning and design of packaging that clearly communicates the benefit provided by "4 hours of constant and nutritious energy" to continuously feed the consumer's body. Experiences of “pure enjoyment” With the growth of post-materialist values, pursuing ease and expressing status is more than wealth. People look for experiences that really allow them to appreciate the moment, which also explains why Mindfulness has become such a significant trend. This also transcends snacks, for example, from the research of consumers around the world, we know that the chocolate snack is often experienced as an intense moment of relaxation, momentarily relieving consumers of work and pressures in life by way of offering them the possibility of escapism and self-expression. This means that snack manufacturers need to raise their game and offer experiences to consumers, and not just promote the food intake. Vendors and designers need to maximize the role of structure and package design in order to enhance those experiences of "pure enjoyment." Recently, the United States launched the chocolate brand Green & Black in beautiful packages that present a library of chocolate bars made by experts and which enhance the consumer’s overall experience. “Whif de France” is another example of a unique package structure, which creates a new way of consuming chocolate by "breathing" it instead of the traditional way of consuming chocolate through biting and chewing. Instantly and anywhere Time is an increasingly precious resource, and our multitasking lifestyles are driving the need for short solutions, in the same way as consumers expect products to simplify their lives. The hectic pace of modern life has driven the development of snacks and other on-the-go products. In fact and according to Mintel, the number of global launches of food and beverages increased by 54% in 2016. The new package and product formats allow consumers to enjoy product categories that they have never been able to do before. As a summary, the good news is that a sandwich does not need to comply with all four of these tendencies. The snack segment is big enough with multiple needs and occasions of the consumers, so the offers of individual snacks should focus on solving the consumers’ needs on specific occasions instead of trying to do too many things in a single offer.
FOOD PACKAGING which is safe, efficient, intelligent, and sustainable
Modern packaging—is thinking, remembering, prolonging the duration of food, and they can be heated by pressing a button, they influence our senses with appearance, smell and touch and, sometimes, they are even able to talk. Currently, the packaging of the food sector exceeds the original function of food protection. l Melanie Streich* * Professional journalist at Interpack – linkedin.com/in/melanie-streich-1980b556 A packaging must simultaneously meet multiple demands: demands in marketing and distribution, legal norms on safety and hygiene, consumer demands, such as sustainability or easier handling and, at the same time, lower costs of production, transport and storage. Thanks to the most modern machines with an automatic drive technique, which are controlled by sensor and microprocessor, the innovative materials can be manufactured and disposed of in a sustainable way, so the packaging industry has managed to turn a six-thousand year old idea into a modern high-technology product. Protection through packaging The main objective of all packaging is and still is to protect the contents during transport and storage. Packages prevent dirt or damage from entering, and protect the food from harmful environmental influences, such as light, air or moisture. They protect from spoilage due to microorganisms, and prevent the loss of flavor and vitamins. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), up to 1,300 million tons of food are lost worldwide. Some of the fresh products are spoiled during transportation, are not correctly consumed, or are considered unsalable because they do not meet pre-established standards. And more than often, consumers throw food away, which is still in good condition, just for having exceeded its expiration date. FAO’s SAVE FOOD initiative, the United Nations Environment Program UNEP, and the Düsseldorf Trade Fair have tried to remedy this situation for a period of six years in cooperation with leading companies, organizations and research institutes all over the world. Their common goal was to look for solutions so as to avoid losses and waste of food along the entire chain of value creation. For this, the appropriate infrastructure must be available, consulting and adapting the norms and standards for packaging, clarification and, not last but not least, working on the packaging itself. Hygiene is not everything, but nothing is anything without hygiene Hygiene is our priority, mainly for food packaging, and this especially goes for meat products and sensitive sausages, where the highest hygienic requirements are applicable. The complete high-performance lines, including meat grinders, dosing machines and tray-sealing systems, not only focus on performance, flexibility and product quality, but especially on the interfaces, since these have the maximum influence on the productivity. The person in charge for safe food acts in compliance with the company. The own hygienic controls are mandatory, but it is even more important to avoid any possible hygiene problems from the beginning. Starting from the basic hygienic design and through the components, which have to be able to effortlessly be cleaned to the sterilization of the ambient air by means of short-wave ÚV radiation, the very modern facilities are required to offer the highest hygiene levels. Especially in the field of self-service, the skin packaging (second skin) has become increasingly important in recent years, which is a self-service packaging comprising two components, with a PP or CPET tray and a sealed skin sheet. "The expiration of the products can be extended considerably by way of second-skin vacuum packaging (skin)," explains Stefan Dangel, director of sales and marketing at Sealpac. Intelligent Packaging The innovation capacity of the packaging industry is enormous. When it comes down to the latest packaging technologies, the nanotechnology, printed or organic electronics cannot be ignored. Intelligent packaging detecting the freshness of food and can be influenced and has selectively ceased to be a utopia for some time. The active packaging regulates the degree of humidity, prevents the formation of germs or even selectively exterminates them—for example by means of the so-called absorber. Iron prolongs the preservation of beverages sensitive to oxygen, such as beer or juices. The common salt in the packaging inhibits the formation of condensed water and allows to preserve its good appearance for a longer time, for example, mushrooms, which normally change color in a short time. "The idea was to develop a packaging, which is able to absorb and regulate the humidity," explains Dr. Cornelia Stramm from the Fraunhofer Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung IVV in Freising while describing the focus of the research project. Freshness that can be appreciated Modern packaging has special sensors enabling the consumer to see whether food is still consumable. They react when certain substances or gases are released and indicate it by way of a change in color or fluorescence. In this way, it can be seen in what state the food is right at first glance. One of the most frequent reasons for their deterioration is the interruption of the cold chain. By means of intelligent time-temperature indicators, this can be revealed, especially by changes in the color. Sustainability as basic discipline The consumers’ demands concerning food packaging are high. Not only safety and hygiene, but also sustainability are part of the requirements in the packaging sector. In the first instance, consumers relate sustainability to issues, such as recycling and disposal. The expansion of the container-return systems and recycling as well as the clear conditions have enabled it that the reuse of the packaging has considerably increased in the last years. More and more is being recycle mainly in Europe. All EU countries will be obliged to use half of the waste volume they generate by 2020. Moreover, the material and the quantity used as well as the size of the packaging compared to the content play an important role in the valuation of sustainable packaging. A clear trend in this field is the use of regenerable raw materials. These are used instead of conventional materials so as to achieve a better CO2 balance, and often manifest to be especially sustainable. However, research indicates that conventional materials, such as classic plastics, can also offer environmental benefits when considering the entire life cycle of a product, for example by way of efficient recycling systems. Finally, the assessment of the most sustainable solution requires an integral consideration of each application case, while taking into account the different factors at all the stages of the value creation chain. Packaging 4.0 In addition to exposing itself to the consumers’ expectations, the packaging industry is also exposed to the high demands of its customers. The sector reacts to the requirements of more flexibility and efficiency, among other things, by way of an intelligent and connected factory, where classic machine construction is efficiently connected through sensors, software and services. Industria 4.0 has long since become a standard in food industry and is closely related to the component industry, which can be considered as precursor of technological advancement. The modern facilities cannot only enable independent information about the process and system states, but also communicate with each other, and independently correct the process sequences whenever necessary. "Smart products individually control the production process itself. And there is even more: by the communication through the chain of value creation, a product’s life cycle can be fully and seamlessly understood. Thus, all new business models are possible," explains Hartmut Rauen, deputy general manager at VDMA. Packages are essential for modern societies. This is especially true for food, and is mainly revealed where they are lacking in developing countries. Frequently and among other things, food is spoiled by poor packaging or lack thereof during transportation and storage before reaching the consumers. In turn, in industrialized countries, a packaging must not only protect well, but also have a good appearance. And it should stand out in the crowded shelves in the supermarkets, since most of the customers are deciding right when purchasing the product, which they are really interested in.
Perspective in the Industry of PLASTIC PACKAGING
The diversity and versatility of the polymer production industry is one of the advantages that characterizes this sector, both in terms of the different product types and the different uses that are possible. l Nadia Perera* * Content Editor of the Énfases Packaging Magazine. The packaging, especially the plastic packaging, is intensely regulated all over the world throughout the supply chain, from raw materials to end-of-life processes, particularly in recycling. The trend towards sustainability is an important influence in the packaging industry. Consumers, manufacturers and retailers are demanding more sustainable systems, which are formalized in the objectives of corporate social responsibility. Global Growth of the Sector The latest report by Zion Market Research “Rigid plastic packaging market: industry perspective, comprehensive analysis and forecasting, 2016” highlights that people who favor beverages and other home-care products have an impact, which has a positive effect for the global growth of the rigid plastic packaging market. The study highlights that rigid plastics are the most resistant plastics used in various applications for the packaging products or materials: "They are highly preferred for industrial purposes due to their properties, such as being easy to be molded, light weight, non-corrosive and economical. RIGID PLASTIC CONTAINERS ARE PARTICULARLY USED TO INCREASE THE PRODUCT'S LIFE Rapidly growing urbanization also contributes to the market growth. In addition, the basic properties of rigid plastic, such as increased rigidity, barrier and resistance, are increasing the demand for this material on the market. “Innovative designs for packaging in the food and beverage industry will boost the market in the future. High competition for advanced rigid plastic packaging can hamper the market growth to some extent,” emphasizes the study. The global market is segmented according to the application of the end user as products used by the consumer, such as food and beverages, products for personal care, electronic products, pharmaceuticals and other products. In this, the food and beverage industry is the principal segment of applications for end users. The Importance of Sustainability Sustainable packaging is a global mega-trend with particular implications for the rigid plastic packaging industry. There is growing public pressure on brand owners and retailers to reduce the environmental impact of their packaging, reports the market study "The future of rigid plastic packaging in 2022" by Smithers Pira. The proposals go on how to approach the package in the following ways: Lightness: reduces the use of the material without damaging the performance of the package Increased use of recycled plastic raw materials Investigating the use of bioplastic containers. “Brand owners are using more recycled and recyclable plastic containers to reduce the environmental impact of the packaging. Bioplastics are a popular option for brand owners looking to show their environmental credentials. In practice, different approaches can be combined,” the report highlights. For example, Unilever announced in January 2017 that it promised to ensure that all of its plastic containers are completely reusable, recyclable or compostable by 2025. The company also agreed to reduce the weight of its containers by 2020, and increase its use of recycled plastic in its container up to at least 25% by 2025. Companies in many end-use segments increasingly recognize that sustainability in packaging is a core value, rather than a unique sales and marketing opportunity, while retailers now offer biodegradable packaging for a wide range of products, including fresh and organic foods. Plastic Transformation will generate 250 thousand Jobs In Mexico there are 3000 plastic transformation companies and they generate 250,000 jobs, plus one million people who are dedicated to the distribution, sale and marketing of plastic, while this industry invoices 25 billion dollars annually and whereas 98% stay in the country itself, according to data from the Plastic Business Center of the National Chamber of the Transformation Industry (Canacintra). Mexico imports up to 5 million tons per year of finished products, the latter mainly from the automotive industry (namely from Germany, Italy, Spain and France, among others), since there are only 20 suppliers of that sector in the country.
Industry Forecast of PLASTIC PACKAGING
Packaging trends are evolving according to the adjustment, production and storage needs of the consumer. The change in the patterns of consumer demands is the factor, which has the greatest influence on the transformation of the packaging industry. l Anwesha Majumder* * Analista Senior de Investigación de MarketsandMarkets / linkedin.com/in/anwesha-majumder-78790939 Plastic has secured its position as the preferred material in the packaging industry for sectors, such as food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, as well as industrial products. A large part of everyday household products are packed in plastic. The extensive use of this packaging material can be attributed to the innovative visual appeal and convenience. In addition to that, the ability to improve the shelf life of products, especially in the food and products segment, is adding to the popularity of plastic packaging. The packaging industry has witnessed growth due to factors such as the increase in income levels, population and changing lifestyles. The growth prospects of the end-use sectors, such as food and beverages, are stimulating the development of the demand of the plastic packaging industry. Organized retail and the development of the e-commerce industry are further expanding the demand for plastics for packaging applications. The period between 1970 and 1980 was known as the plastic revolution. The plastic, being light and easily transportable, was widely used as packaging for products. The modern industry is under great pressure to constantly advance, meeting environmental standards and producing raw materials, which are more reliable and effective than their predecessors. The increased demand for packaged food and beverages that require protection against moisture and other environmental changes are the main drivers of the growth of the plastic snow market. Main types of plastic containers The use of plastics in packaging can mainly be classified in two types: rigid and flexible packaging. Rigid plastic packaging is defined as any package that has a relatively flexible shape and with a minimum capacity of eight fluid ounces, which makes it capable of maintaining its shape. Compared to rigid packaging, these packages are a dynamic technology and anticipate strong growth in the future. A gradual change in the plastic packaging industry has been observed from traditional rigid packaging to flexible packaging due to the various advantages offered by flexible packaging, such as the comfort in handling and disposal, and savings in transportation costs, for axample thanks to the minimum space required. Flexible packaging, replacement of traditional packaging The growing demand for flexible plastic containers is due to the growing need to replace traditional packaging materials, such as metal cans, glass bottles, rigid plastic and liquid cartons in a wide range of end uses. Several brands began to value flexible plastic containers for their flexibility, low proportional cost and high potential for innovations. The implementation of various manufacturing methods and polymer additions provide the means to increase its attractiveness for a broad spectrum of products. Comfort features, such as single serving portions and portability of these packages, change the consumer's focus from rigid to flexible plastic packaging. Technological advances The creation of flexible films has prompted the plastic packaging industry to reach high production figures. Through the development and use of these films, manufacturing practices and continuous innovations, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and vacuum packaging, it has been able to grow and move forward to adapt to the needs of products in the world. Flexible plastic packaging solutions help reducing the carbon footprint. This favorable environmental impact translates into high growth prospects for the sector. Nanotechnology has a great influence on the sector. It is also used to improve the barrier properties of flexible plastic packaging. Importance of recyclability The trend of recycling and reuse of plastics is an important step to support innovation and sustainability. The regulations formulated by the governments of the respective countries and the growing awareness about recycling and disposal of plastic waste are encouraging the packaging industry to develop green production technologies and sustainable packaging products. The reduction of packaging size and sustainability are closely related to the decrease in the sources used in the packaging of a particular product. This reduces the waste generated due to packaging materials. Increased food safety, quality and shelf life Plastics offer an excellent barrier against oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Moreover, they are inert to acids, alkalis and other solvents, which guarantees the freshness and hygiene of the contents for a longer period. Plastic packages help protecting the food quality and can significantly reduce post-harvest losses. According to the Natural Resources Defense Council, an international non-profit environmental advocacy group based in New York in 2016, up to 40% of food are wasted in the United States. It has been shown that flexible plastic packaging is a useful alternative to perishable items. For example, studies show that bananas packed in flexible plastic containers have slowed the ripening process and extended the shelf life. Flexible packaging is gaining on the market thanks to the profitability due to busy lifestyles, while the demand for convenient products has increased, which has led to an increase in the demand for flexible packages. Flexible plastic packaging requires less reuse and energy for packaging. Therefore, flexible packages are available at low cost and take up 35% less space on retail shelves, so they are cost-effective compared to other forms of packaging. packaging. Manufacturers have focused on reducing the size and weight of the packaging by using fewer materials. According to the Food Manufacturers Association (GMA), between 2005 and 2010, its members reduced the weight of the containers. With the development of new technologies, the reduction in the amount of packaging through the development of lightweight packaging from materials, such as plastic films, has been encouraging the packaging industry towards sustainable packaging. This is likely to support the demand for flexible plastic containers, since it requires less resources to pack the product and at the same time guarantees its quality and safety. In the future, the growth of the plastic packaging industry is expected to be mainly influenced by the end-use sectors, government initiatives and growing consumerism.
PET Plastic In Food And Beverage Packaging Design
By M. Maritz , V. Eriksson and V. Barnes Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa *firstname.lastname@example.org DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/dsd.2020.83 Abstract This article draws inspiration from two concepts, which initially appear to be at odds with each other. The first refers to the impact that plastics use has had on the environment and human health, while the second explores the prevalence and continued increase in the use of plastic materials. The manufacturing of plastic packaging will be reviewed to identify appropriate intervention. This article focuses on the future development of PET packaging in South Africa, exploring current literature and legislation which aid in the holistic development of the plastic packaging value chain. 1. IntroductionOver the last two decades, user behaviour has become an integral part of plastic packaging design. Initially, plastic packaging was invented as an affordable response to the consumer need for convenience (Macdonald and Vaughan, 2008, p.9). Since the start of the 21st century, the role of plastics has changed. Plastic packaging now must comply with three user categories: it needs to be eco-friendly, financially viable and socially appropriate. Regarding recycling, South Africa proves to be an interesting case study as its recycling system is in direct contrast with Europe. In 2018, South Africa ranked number 10 globally as one of the countries with the worst plastic waste management (d’Ambrières, 2019, p.15). Even though no developed countries are on this list (e.g. Europe), that same year, South Africa recycled 63% of all PET bottles whilst collecting and recycling 46.3% of all other plastic waste. South Africa recycled 15.2% more post-consumer plastic waste than Europe in 2018, making SA a world leader in mechanical recycling (Plastics SA, 2019). Another consideration is the availability of extensive research on plastic waste management in developing countries. According to the systematic literature review, there seems to be very little available literature on how developing countries manage their plastic waste. South Africa is one of the only developing countries with extensive research showing conclusive results. Plastic packaging is currently designed using a linear model, which is based on planned obsolescence (United Nations, 2018, p.9). Short product life cycles are causing plastic packaging to account for half of all plastic waste in the world (Schweitzer et al., 2018a, p.5). The design and manufacturing of plastic packaging must therefore be reviewed - to propose design changes focused on immediate impact - while longer term solutions are implemented (United Nations, 2018, p.6). Hammer and Pivo (2017, p.1) have argued that sustainable development cannot take place without recognising that current development patterns need to change. Carrying on with the same systems can jeopardise the environmental structure of both the planet and economy. For holistic development to take place, it is essential for designers to learn from previous generations (Hammer and Pivo, 2017, p.1). ‘Holistic’ here refers to the key players within the plastic packaging industry working together in order to create a sustainable future. The intention of this article is to highlight challenges and opportunities, through a systematic review of literature, as well as policy and reporting within the context of South Africa. The problems within the plastic packaging industry can only be addressed properly if all facets of the system are considered. This article will present the results from a review of current literature and data, which focuses on user behaviour, packaging design, system design and sustainable development. Although inspiration will be drawn from international studies and the global climate of user behaviour in packaging, the key focus will be on the South African industry. 2. Research approachFor this study, a systematic literature review was used to review current findings and discussions around PET plastic in the food and beverage industries, within the context of South Africa. A systematic literature review is useful when “a general overall picture of the evidence in a topic area is needed to direct future research efforts” (Petticrew and Roberts, 2008, p.21). By asking a specific question, or using a key phrase, the researcher can identify a body of knowledge to work with. A systematic review details all decisions used in compiling, including and excluding articles/ sources – this allows “the reader to gauge for him- or herself the quality of the review process and the potential for bias” (Garg et al., 2008, p.253). For the first analysis, the systematic literature review, the following range of keyword combinations were used when conducting searches: “South Africa and PET and packaging and food” and well as “South Africa and PET and packaging and beverage”. A range of electronic databases were searched (Table 1). Table 1. Databases included in the literature search The range of databases was extensive, as the range of fields which research PET is varied. As the study mainly focussed on current discussions and considerations, journal articles older than 2010 were not deemed appropriate. Additional inclusion criteria were that the final article was accessible in English and available as full text. Peer review was used as an exclusion criteria – this was because the peer review process is a generally accepted indicator of quality – although it is not always reliable. In fact, Jefferson, Wager and Davidoff suggest that it is near impossible to “estimate the effectiveness of the process”, and consequently make any improvements Jefferson et al. (2002, p.2789). The range of identified literature, and exclusions, are detailed in Table 2. As the challenges and opportunities of the PET plastic in the food and beverage industries may also be captured directly by industry, a second phase of analysis was completed - using industry reports and publications issued by relevant organisations and industry watchdogs. The need to include industry findings and reports speaks to an integrated and holistic review of data available. The review of identified journal articles and industry findings are discussed in the context of international trends and findings (discussed as a systematic literature overview). The plastic packaging industry is a vast field which is still being developed and so is the relevant legislation. In combination with academic literature, policy was reviewed to gain a holistic understanding of the context. When selecting applicable legislation and industry documents for this article, only the most current version of legislation and policies in South Africa were selected (currency was thus applied as the main selection criteria). All the international policies which are mentioned, have been used to influence South African policies, regarding the environment and plastic packaging. In 2016, South Africa signed the Paris agreement. The Paris agreement is a legally-binding framework set out by the United Nations. It is an internationally coordinated effort aimed at tackling climate change. Each country which signed the document is obligated to prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions (Adoption of the Paris Agreement, 2015). Table 2. Identified literature and exclusions Plastics SA is the umbrella body which represents the entire value chain of the South African Plastics industry. On 12 August 2016, the South African Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) published a call for Industry (Section 28) to create Waste Management Plans. This call was for all industries within Paper, Packaging, Electrical, Electronic Equipment and Lighting Industries. This call came under sections 28(1) and 28(5) of the National Environmental Management: Waste Act, 2008 (Act no.59 of 2008) (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2016). In response, Plastics SA published an Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) Plan on 5 September 2018. The EPR plan promotes waste minimisation, re-use, recycling and recovery of all plastic waste (PETCO, 2016). This development plan is completely on par with the current goals of the Paris agreement, showing SA’s willingness and continuous research to move towards sustainable plastic packaging. In July 2019, Plastics SA announced the formation of the South African Alliance. Its main goal is to End Plastic Pollution in the SA Environment. The South African Alliance is compiled of a group of plastics industry role players - that will collaborate on an initiative to ultimately end plastic pollution throughout the value chain. Their first priority is to find sustainable solutions to “single use” plastics. Their main goal is to increase the plastics recycling rate, and ultimately contribute to the National Development Plan (NDP) together with the objectives of the EPR plan (Plastics SA, 2019). The NDP was released by the South African Department of Social Development in 2015. The key objective of the NDP is to create an outline for industry in which people suffering from disabilities can contribute to the growth of South Africa’s economy, thus creating jobs. Through appropriate intervention and legislation, the NDP aims to: raise per capita income and increase the employment rate from 13 million in 2010 to 24 million in 2030 (Department of Social Development, 2015). 3. Literature overview: The challenge in context Papanek’s 1974 book, Design for the Real World: Human Ecology and Social Change, the author discusses the designer’s obligation to society and the environment when designing (Papanek, 1995, p.265). Since the 1950’s, more than 42% of all plastics produced globally have been used for packaging (Schweitzer et al., 2018a, p.4). Currently plastic packaging (both rigid and flexible) accounts for one third of the total packaging industry (Foster, 2019). The design and manufacturing of plastic packaging must therefore be reviewed, to propose design changes focussed on immediate impact, while longer term solutions are implemented. It is essential for users to realise that plastic is a valuable resource that can be reused, instead of a disposable material (United Nations, 2018, p.6). The World Commission for the Environment and Development (1987, p.15) defines sustainable development as “…a morally defensible form of economic and social development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet the needs of others”. The sustainable development of a product has implications for the entire value chain from cradle to grave (Lee and Xu, 2005, p.15). The life cycle of food and beverage packaging has 5 stages namely: raw material production, fabrication of the packaging, distribution/transport, post-consumer disposal and recycling (Franklin Associates, 2014, p.5). Typically, only a few packaging and distribution methods are considered when doing a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). Thus, the outcome provides a choice between ‘bad’ and ‘less bad’, irrespective of the implications (Schweitzer et al., 2018b, p.12). The global plastic packaging market will be worth $998 Billion by 2020, indicating 3.5% growth per annum (Foster, 2019). In South Africa alone, the informal job creation within the plastic packaging industry was estimated at 52 300 in 2017 (Hanekom, 2019). These statistics prove that the plastics industry plays an integral part in both the financial and social economy. In order to understand where the most waste takes place in the current system, all stages of plastic packaging needs to be analysed (Hanekom, 2019). This will aid in moving towards closed loop, carbon-neutral production cycles (United Nations, 2018, p.15). With an active user involved, it is important to consider psychology. Gestalt psychology attempts to understand why and how certain user behaviours can be triggered through appropriate patterns and interventions (Wagemans et al., 2012, p.1219). Gestalt principles are applicable to user behavioural design, as gestalt shows the subconscious relationship between the consumer expectation and the designed product. Gestalt principles are based on the idea that the consumer will react to certain products or shapes based on previous experiences (Chang et al., 2002, p.6). Waste management within the packaging industry is based on the knowledge of the user. In a survey done by the UK based Which?, 94% of respondents agreed that the amount of plastic packaging should be reduced, 23% of respondents reiterated that they avoid buying products which they feel are ‘over-packaged’. Another survey by the Industry Council for Research on Packaging proved that 79% of consumers agree that plastic is malevolent and that the products are ‘over packaged’ (Schweitzer et al., 2018a, p.14). These studies prove that consumers believe plastic packaging is bad, without even considering factors like the implication other materials can have on the environment. Currently, bioplastics are being investigated and tested - to find the best possible alternative for petroleum-based plastics (Risch, 2009, p.8091). In the sector of plastic packaging, it is integral for consumers to understand what they are buying and the implications thereof. The terms ‘biodegradable’ & ‘bio-based’ packaging is commonly mistaken for something that can break down naturally and quickly in the natural environment. The majority of biodegradable plastics only biodegrade under high temperatures at incineration plants (United Nations, 2018, p.8). This will allow uninformed consumers to discard ‘biodegradable’ packaging into the natural environment. There have been many alternatives to plastic suggested, but they also introduce a range of new consequences. Currently biodegradable plastics which show the best alternatives to synthetic based single-use plastic packaging include Polylactic Acid (PLA), Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPS) (United Nations, 2018, p.15). Although they are great alternatives, they can only be recycled with industrial composting or anaerobic digestion facilities. This means PLA, PHA and TPS are only viable in a closed loop system where the packaging waste is well managed, otherwise they will end up in landfills and the natural environment (United Nations, 2018, p.15). These alternatives are only viable if they are managed correctly and if the correct infrastructure is available (Schweitzer et al., 2018a, p.10). Most current bioplastic packaging does not specify the biodegradability or compost-ability of the product. This may lead to uninformed consumers discarding packaging recklessly. These factors reinforce the importance for governments to apply strict labelling policies, to ensure that consumers are educated and informed (United Nations, 2018, p.8). It has been proved that plastic packaging increases shelf life of food, which can in turn reduce food waste. To name one example; it is estimated that the plastic around a cucumber increases its shelf life from 3 to 14 days (Sonesson et al., 2009, p.16). Although proving that plastic shrink wrap increases the shelf life of a product, this research makes no mention of consumer behaviour (Schweitzer et al., 2018a, p.16). 4. Results and discussionFindings from the literature identified through the systematic review offered a limited view of the South African plastics industry. However, they clearly represent a shift in scientific, technical and design driven research towards environmentally-conscious solutions. Between 2000 and 2017, South Africa imported approximately 13.7 Mt of plastics which equated to about 11.6% of plastics consumption in Africa (Babayemi et al., 2019, p.10). Lightweight plastics - which find their way into bodies of water when disposed of in open dump sites - and PET bottles make up the largest percentage of marine litter (Babayemi et al., 2019, p.16). Ways in which PET can be improved, including for the food and beverage packaging, is constantly being researched. These alterations include the addition of thin films to the surface of a PET container (including diamond-like carbon) to increase the barrier performance in relation to gasses (Ray et al., 2017, p.63). The effect that such additions would have, both from a production perspective and from an environmental perspective is not addressed in the findings but does speak to a growing need to understand how PET packaging can be improved to support the life cycle of food and beverage packaging. These studies, in combination with studies exploring the maximum reduction of PET thickness, speak to a growing industry awareness of environmental concerns (Siracusa et al., 2014, p.152). These concerns must be balanced by the need for food to arrive at the point of consumption in a safe and wholesome state. This may include the effects of temperature and light fluctuation as a packaged item travels and is stored in a variety of environments (Aneck-Hahn et al., 2018, p.260). In South Africa, and also globally, PET water bottles offer convenience in a hot climate, and access to water when no other safe source is available. The same is true of other food and beverage packaging examples. Besides only exploring the product itself, literature indicates a review of the production and usage ecosystems. More holistic methodologies are used, such as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, to understand the impact of how packaging was used: to review the production, use and impact thereof. For a better understanding of this, it is enough to observe, for instance, that: using low-thickness multilayer films and PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) bottles, respectively for food and beverages packaging, allows for a reduction of the environmental cost due to the phases of transportation to the food production and packaging plant, handling and dismantling...(Siracusa et al., 2014, p.151) When the entire ecosystem is understood, the potential of product design interventions, technologies and new developments - in areas such as bio-based materials - becomes apparent. Even with plastics being more recyclable than ever, one cannot assume that consumers will recycle them. A lack of consumer knowledge and appropriate waste management systems, at local government level, impacts this. The South African government-implemented legislation to lessen the demand for plastic shopping bags, banning thicker bags and charging consumers for the thinner (polythene bags > 30 μm) options had the opposite effect. Instead of reducing the number of bags being used, consumers adjusted and accepted the cost with the demand for plastic steadily increasing in South Africa (Dikgang et al., 2012, quoted in Lam et al., 2018, p.345). In order to pursue sustainability within packaging design, alternative materials should be researched, awareness raised among consumers, plastic products must be properly labelled, and the design of packaging reviewed. The packaging of food and beverages must be considered as individual elements, and as a whole. This means that when one considers the environmental impact of a disposable water bottle, it is critical to analyse the labelling and the PET bottle itself, as well as the marketing strategies, trends and consumer behaviour associated with the life cycle of the product (Sherwood et al., 2017). Design interventions are needed to facilitate better experiences and infrastructure, which would allow the consumer to rethink the way they look at plastic packaging. A new holistic approach needs to be introduced, which encompasses ‘the issues not only of cost, shelf-life, safety and practicality, but also of environmental sustainability’ (Siracusa et al., 2014, p.152). Within South Africa, the plastics recycling industry is based on economic principles. This is in contrast with Europe, where recycling is based on environmental legislation which is enforced by the local government. South Africa relies on manual labour and waste picking, whereas in Europe, the entire system is automated (Plastics SA, 2018). The importance of creating sustainable recycling systems which are tailor-made for different countries are shown in Table 3 (Adapted from Plastics SA, 2019). Table 3. Difference in SA and EU recycling climate In Europe, the user interaction stops after the packaging has been discarded. The post-consumer waste is collected by formal waste management companies (United Nations, 2018, p.8). In South Africa, there are two user interaction phases; consumer and post-consumer interaction. The post-consumer interaction is defined by informal waste pickers and manual sorting centres. Waste pickers represent individuals who are unqualified or unable to find a job. This is where the NDP becomes applicable, the manual sorting and waste picking culture in SA, creates jobs for disabled people. Waste pickers represent the informal employment sector of SA. In 2017, 74% of all plastic materials that were recycled, originated from landfill and post-consumer sources (pickers). In 2017 +/-313780 tons of plastic were collected for recycling, in 2018 +/-519370 tons were collected and recycled. This indicates a growth of 6,7% from 2017-2018 (Plastics SA, 2019). Plastic recycling in SA is continually growing, and has significant financial gain for pickers, as can be seen in Figure 1 (Adapted from Plastics SA, 2019; Hanekom, 2019). Figure 1.Formal & Informal employment in SA plastic packaging An example of the importance of tailor making waste management systems according to specific regions or resources is black plastic containers. In 2015, one of Europe’s largest recycling companies Waste Management confirmed that their equipment generally cannot process black plastic due to equipment limitations. Black plastic is a favourite to use for many quick service restaurants (QSR), and as a result, this causes major concern (MacKerron, 2015, p.21). Whereas in SA, the waste picking culture (informal employment) creates the perfect solution as it can be easily sorted and recycled (Plastics SA, 2019). In the EPR plan published by Plastics SA, they emphasise the importance of the user factor within the plastic packaging economy by using the Ellen Macarthur Foundation Circular economy model. This model can be seen in Figure 2 (Adapted from Plastics SA, 2019; Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2012, p.24).Figure 2 divides the circular economy into three spheres: biosphere, human-sphere and technosphere. The Human-sphere is highlighted as being the most important aspect within the system, showing the importance of taking user behaviours into account when designing. Figure 2.Circular economy model focused on user behaviour 5. Conclusion and outlookThrough doing a systematic literature and policy review, this article analysed the context of the South African PET packaging industry. Taking into consideration the global plastics climate, there is clear legislation and industry reports which prove that SA has pursued the global sustainability targets. Incorporating waste pickers into waste management and recycling programs is socially desirable, economically viable, and environmentally sound. Recommendations for the future development of PET plastic in the food and beverage industry are as follows:1. Reconsider PET plastic production and design in a holistic manner.2. Consider all facets of the system when designing PET packaging.3. Utilise gestalt principles to understand the necessary intervention needed to show what can be achieved by users.4. Combine expertise of different designers and exchange data, to develop sustainable products which cross disciplinary boundaries.5. Study supporting alternative materials and create legislation that is enforced by the local government.6. 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Researchers to teach robots how to differentiate between sandwich ingredients so they can make your favourite BLT
Loughborough University computer scientists have teamed up with a food production automation company for a project that looks to teach AI robots how to differentiate between food items so they can make sandwiches in real-world factory environments. Project lead Dr Baihua Li, of the School of Science, hopes the research with Millitec Food Systems will “empower a range of new automation functions on food production conveyors and pipelines”. Food manufacturing is the largest manufacturing industry within Europe, but the industry faces major problems with labour supply due to increased costs and a shortage of workers willing to undertake less-skilled roles. Millitec supplies hi-tech manufacturing machinery and a range of robotic products for food production automation that look to plug this gap in the industry. It has developed a range of technology that can assemble and pack sandwiches, with the intention of reducing intensive labour work required on production conveyors. Their current sandwich-assemblers are able to assist in the sandwich-making process – for example, they can butter bread and cut sandwiches – but they are unable to undertake tasks that require them to differentiate between items, such as selecting salad toppings to put inside a sandwich. The project with Loughborough University looks to take the robotic technology to the next level of intelligence. Dr Li and her team of researchers are to develop machine vision and embedded artificial intelligence (AI) technology for the robot manipulators that will enable them to recognise a variety of items and carry out more advanced tasks such as picking up the right elements in the right amount and order. They will investigate using a low-cost reliable camera and sensing system on Millitec’s ‘Delta robots', which, in essence, will allow the machines to ‘see’. They will then develop algorithms that train the robots to recognise various breads and food ingredients, and accurately detect their location and orientation. The academics will create the algorithms using ‘deep learning’ – a method of teaching a machine how to carry out tasks automatically without explicit human instructions. This involves collecting thousands of images and getting a computer system to analyse them, so it learns what different items look like. As well as being taught how to identify food items, the Millitec robots will be trained to spot and deal with errors on production conveyors, such as missing ingredients or items in the wrong position. The developed technology will be deployed as an embedded system on Millitec’s existing automation machines, meaning the prepacked sandwich you purchase from the petrol station in the near future could have been made from start to finish by robots. The machines will be taught how to differentiate between different food items – meaning one day the sandwich you purchase may have been prepared entirely by robots. Photo by Sara Cervera on Unsplash Dr Li commented: “Loughborough's Computer Science department has a solid track record and expertise in AI. “Industry presents new challenges to our research and this project will deal with various challenges in real-world factory conditions and meet the commercial requirements in accuracy, safety and speed. “The developed robust vision algorithms and camera-based sensing system will also reduce the system manufacturing cost. “We will transfer the latest advances of our research in machine vision, deep learning and robotics to drive innovation for high care food manufacturing. “Successful development and commercialisation of the robotics system will significantly reduce the human workforce and improve production quality and efficiency, allowing employees to focus on higher-value activities.” Richard Ledger, Managing Director of Millitec, said: “We’re thrilled to be developing the latest range of food production robotics in conjunction with Loughborough University. “Throughout our 15 years in the industry, we have seen the challenges presented by skills shortages, and a clear need for a technological solution to support food manufacturers. “This development project will be a major leap forward in food production automation.” This research is a 24-month KTP (Knowledge Transfer Partnership)* project, jointly funded by Millitec and Innovate UK. KTPs aim to help businesses improve their competitiveness and productivity through the better use of knowledge, technology and skills that reside within the UK knowledge base. For further information on Loughborough University’s Computer Science department, click here. Reference: *Knowledge Transfer Partnerships Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTPs) are funded by UKRI through Innovate UK with the support of co-funders, including the Scottish Funding Council, Welsh Government, Invest Northern Ireland, Defra and BEIS. Innovate UK manages the KTP programme and facilitates its delivery through a range of partners including the Knowledge Transfer Network (KTN), Knowledge Bases and Businesses. Each partner plays a specific role in the support and delivery of the programme. Loughborough University Loughborough University is equipped with a live in-house broadcast unit via the Globelynx network. To arrange an interview with one of our experts please contact the press office on 01509 223491. Bookings can be made online via www.globelynx.com Loughborough is one of the country’s leading universities, with an international reputation for research that matters, excellence in teaching, strong links with industry, and unrivalled achievement in sport and its underpinning academic disciplines. It has been awarded five stars in the independent QS Stars university rating scheme, named the best university in the world for sports-related subjects in the 2019 QS World University Rankings, University of the Year by The Times and Sunday Times University Guide 2019 and top in the country for its student experience in the 2018 THE Student Experience Survey. Loughborough is in the top 10 of every national league table, being ranked 4th in the Guardian University League Table 2020, 5th in the Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2019 and 8th in The UK Complete University Guide 2020. Loughborough is consistently ranked in the top twenty of UK universities in the Times Higher Education’s ‘table of tables’ and is in the top 10 in England for research intensity. In recognition of its contribution to the sector, Loughborough has been awarded seven Queen's Anniversary Prizes. The Loughborough University London campus is based on the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park and offers postgraduate and executive-level education, as well as research and enterprise opportunities. It is home to influential thought leaders, pioneering researchers and creative innovators who provide students with the highest quality of teaching and the very latest in modern thinking. Loughborough staff, students and alumni make a real difference. They challenge convention, think creatively and find solutions to some of the biggest challenges facing society today and in the future. Meet the #LboroGameChangers at lboro.ac.uk/lborogamechangers Article source:https://www.lboro.ac.uk/media-centre/press-releases/2020/january/robotic-sandwich-making-project/
Importance of Developing Sustainable Food Packaging
By Carol Wiley “Sustainability has become one of the biggest issues in food and beverage today—and packaging is a key component of the move toward sustainable business practices,” states the 2020 Sustainable Packaging Report from Winsight Grocery. “Sustainable packaging is no longer a nice-to-have. It’s a must-have for any brands looking to future-proof their operations against the rising tide of consumer scrutiny,” statesSustainable Packaging Unwrapped, a 2019 report from GlobalWebIndex. CPG leaders identified concerns about plastic and packaging waste as the second-most likely issue they believed would affect their businesses in 2020, according to Industry View 2020 from the Consumer Brands Association. CBA also reports all 25 of the largest CPG companies have committed to increasing recyclable content, reducing packaging, or reusing material. Eighty percent of those companies are working toward fully recyclable packaging for all products within the next 10 years. What is sustainable packaging? Although sustainable can be defined in a number of ways, the Sustainable Packaging Coalition has a vision for sustainable packaging that meets the following criteria: Is beneficial, safe, and healthy for individuals and communities throughout the packaging’s life cycle Meets market criteria for performance and cost Is sourced, manufactured, transported, and recycled using renewable energy Optimizes the use of renewable or recycled source materials Is manufactured using clean production technologies and best practices Is made from materials healthy throughout the life cycle Is physically designed to optimize materials and energy Is effectively recovered and used in biological and/or industrial closed loop cycles What do consumers want? GlobalWebIndex asked consumers in the U.S. and UK what’s most important to them when it comes to environmentally friendly packaging. Here’s what they said: 64% want recyclable 53% want reusable 46% want products that don’t overpackage 39% want compostable/biodegradable 36% want packaging made from renewable sources 35% want packaging that makes it easy to separate different materials for disposal Also, over 50% of consumers told GlobalWebIndex they had reduced the amount of disposable plastic they used in the last 12 months. While consumers now prefer materials made from recycled goods that can also be recycled, “the next frontier of sustainability is the biodegradable and compostable markets,” according to 2019 Trends and Advances in Food Packaging and Processing from PMMI, The Association for Packaging and Processing Technologies. Where are companies going with package sustainability? “Statistics on sustainable packaging from leading industry sources paint a picture of an industry striving for change,” states the 2020 Sustainable Packaging Report. In a recent Packaging Digest article, Tristanne Davis, senior manager with the Sustainable Packaging Coalition, laid out five trends she sees for 2020: More companies announce sustainable packaging goals and create action plans. Companies find ways to increase end markets for recycled plastics. Brands replace substrates to meet recovery goals — for example, paper-based solutions. Companies look at reusable packaging more seriously. Material health becomes more important — in particular, more efforts to reduce per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Developing sustainable packaging is a challenge for food companies that also need to keep their products fresh and safe while making a profit. However, it’s a challenge more companies will have to meet in this evolving world. Orign source: https://foodindustryexecutive.com/2020/03/importance-of-developing-sustainable-food-packaging/